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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The twelve weather and climate models participating in the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) show both a wide variation in the strength of land-atmosphere coupling and some intriguing commonalities. In this paper, we address the causes of variations in coupling strength - both the geographic variations within a given model and the model-to-model differences. The ability of soil moisture to affect precipitation is examined in two stages, namely, the ability of the soil moisture to affect evaporation, and the ability of evaporation to affect precipitation. Most of the differences between the models and within a given model are found to be associated with the first stage - an evaporation rate that varies strongly and consistently with soil moisture tends to lead to a higher coupling strength. The first stage differences reflect identifiable differences in model parameterization and model climate. Intermodel differences in the evaporation-precipitation connection, however, also play a key role.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A cloud radiation interaction parameterization package has recently been incorporated into a global spectral General Circulation Model (GCM) used for extended range prediction studies at GFDL. The elements of this package are summarized. Analysis of the time mean radiative and dynamical responses suggests that cloud radiation interaction has a favorable impact, overall, on systematic errors. The possible relevance of this sensitivity study to FIRE is mentioned.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 301-307
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: GLACE is a model intercomparison study focusing on a typically neglected yet critical element of numerical weather and climate modeling: land-atmosphere coupling strength, or the degree to which anomalies in land surface state (e.g., soil moisture) can affect rainfall generation and other atmospheric processes. The twelve AGCM groups participating in GLACE performed a series of simple numerical experiments that allow the objective quantification of this element. The derived coupling strengths vary widely. Some similarity, however, is found in the spatial patterns generated by the models, enough similarity to pinpoint multi-model "hot spots" of land-atmosphere coupling. For boreal summer, such hot spots for precipitation and temperature are found over large regions of Africa, central North America and India; a hot spot for temperature is also found over eastern China. The design of the GLACE simulations are described in full detail so that any interested modeling group can repeat them easily and thereby place their model s coupling strength within the broad range of those documented here.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: It is widely assumed that variations in the radiative energy budget at large time and space scales are very small. We present new evidence from a compilation of over two decades of accurate satellite data that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) tropical radiative energy budget is much more dynamic and variable than previously thought. We demonstrate that the radiation budget changes are caused by changes In tropical mean cloudiness. The results of several current climate model simulations fall to predict this large observed variation In tropical energy budget. The missing variability in the models highlights the critical need to Improve cloud modeling in the tropics to support Improved prediction of tropical climate on Inter-annual and decadal time scales. We believe that these data are the first rigorous demonstration of decadal time scale changes In the Earth's tropical cloudiness, and that they represent a new and necessary test of climate models.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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