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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Spectrin ; Cytoskeleton ; Isoforms ; Heart ; Immunocytochemistry ; Western blotting ; Mouse (C57BL/6)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of two isoforms of spectrin in the adult mouse heart was investigated by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry by use of monospecific antibodies to erythrocyte spectrin and nonerythroid brain spectrin (240/235). Western blotting revealed proteins analogous to both isoforms of α-spectrin in adult heart. Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry indicated that erythroid spectrin was distributed throughout the myocardium, with immunofluorescence localized to plasma membranes, Z-lines, and intercalated discs. Antibodies to brain spectrin (240/235) exhibited staining throughout the heart, with a generally diffuse distribution except for the prominent immunoreactivity associated with the intercalated discs. Nonerythroid spectrin immunofluorescence was detected in the endothelial cells of the endocardium and the mesothelial cell lining of the epicardium. Erythrocyte spectrin was not detected in the endocardium or the epicardium. The identification and localization of spectrin isoforms in the mammalian heart suggest the importance of spectrin proteins in the structural integrity and proper function of cardiac cells and tissues. This is the first demonstration of two different α-spectrin subunits in the mammalian heart.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Supramolecular Structure 8 (1978), S. 455-463 
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: protein mobility ; spectrin shape ; spectrin binding ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Transmembrane proteins of the human erythrocyte show restricted in-plane mobility. Many of the restrictions on mobility are attributable to the molecules of spectrin which are located on the protoplasmic surface of the erythrocyte membrane. These molecules are elongate, form end-to-end heterodimer associations, and bind selectively to protein (or proteins) accessible on inside-out, but not right-side out, membrane vesicles.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 6 (1987), S. 274-279 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a companion review1 we discussed the data supporting the conclusion that at least two subtypes of spectrin exist in mammalian brain. One form is found in the cell bodies, dendrites, and post-synaptic terminals of neurons (brain spectrin(240/235E)) and the other subtype is located in the axons and presynaptic terminals (brain spectrin(240/235)). Our recent understanding of brain spectrin subtype localization suggests a possible explanation for a conundrum concerning brain 4.1 localization. Amelin, an immunoreactive analogue of red blood cell (rbc) cytoskeletal protein 4.1, is localized in neuronal cell bodies and dendrites when brain sections are stained with antibody against rbc protein 4.1. However, it has recently been suggested that synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of small synaptic vesicles, is related to erythrocyte 4.1. In this review we hypothesize that there are at least two forms of brain 4.1: a cell body/dendritic form (amelin) which is detected with rbc protein 4.1 antibody, and a unique form found exclusively in the presynaptic terminal (synapsin I). The binding of synapsin I to brain spectrin(240/235), and its ability to stimulate the spectrin/F-actin interaction in a phosphorylation-dependent manner suggests a model for the regulation of synaptic transmission mediated by the neuronal cytoskeleton.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 5 (1986), S. 25-29 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mammalian neural cells contain at least two forms of brain spectrin: brain spectrin (240/235) which is located primarily in the axons and presynaptic terminals of neurons, and brain spectrin (240/235E) which is found in the cell bodies, dendrites and postsynaptic terminals of neurones. Brain spectrin (240/235E) is also found in certain glial cell types. Antibodies against red blood cell spectrin detect only brain spectrin (240/235E), while antibodies against brain spectrin isolated from axonal and synaptic membranes detect brain spectrin (240/235). Previous apparent discrepancies in the literature concerning brain spectrin localization at the light microscope level were undoubtedly due to different laboratories detecting distinct brain spectrin subtypes, based on the particular antibody being utilized for immunohistochemistry. In this review we (1) discuss the data supporting the presence of at least two distinct subtypes of mammalian brain spectrin, (2) explain how these results reconcile previous discrepancies concerning the localization of spectrin within neural cells, and (3) suggest the future implications of these findings.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Brain spectrin ; Cell interactions ; Cytoskeleton ; Neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM ; Neural cell culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary N-CAM180, the molecular form of the three neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAM) with the largest cytoplasmic domain, is accumulated at sites of cell-cell contact (cell bodies, neurites, growth cones) in cultures of neuroblastoma and cerebellum. At these sites the cytoskeletonmembrane linker protein brain spectrin and actin are also accumulated. Brain spectrin copurifies with N-CAM180 by immunoaffinity chromatography and binds specifically to N-CAM180 but not to N-CAM140 or N-CAM120 in a solid-phase binding test. These observations indicate an association of N-CAM180 with the cytoskeleton in vivo. This association may underlie the reduced lateral mobility of N-CAM180 in the surface membrane compared to N-CAM140 (Pollerberg et al. 1986). Together with the fact that N-CAM180 is only expressed after termination of neuron migration in vivo (Persohn and Schachner, unpublished) these results suggest a role for N-CAM180 in stabilization of cell contacts.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: brain spectrin ; actin ; immunofluorescence ; peptide mapping ; protein phosphorylation ; syndeins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane-associated mouse brain spectrin is a 972,000 Mr, 10.5S, (αβ)2 tetramer containing two ∼ 240,000 Mr subunits and two ∼ 235,000 Mr subunits. Two-dimensional [125I]tryptic peptide mapping indicates that these subunits share only limited and equivalent overlap with the α- and β-subunits of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin. Both the 220,000 Mr β-subunit of RBC spectrin and the 235,000 Mr β-subunit of brain spectrin are phosphorylated in the intact mouse. In vitro analysis suggests that both are phosphorylated by a cAMP-independent protein kinase. Antibodies against pure native mouse red blood cell spectrin cross-react with brain spectrin, and antibodies against pure brain spectrin cross-react with both the α-and β-subunits of mouse RBC spectrin. Both antibodies have been utilized to localize brain spectrin within distinct cellular entities of the mouse cerebellum. Granule cell neurons of the internal granule layer and Purkinje cell neurons demonstrated intense fluorscence of the cortical cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane and unstained nuclei, when either RBC or brain spectrin antibodies were utilized for staining. The molecular layer of the cerebellum stained only lightly, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes appeared to have little fluorescence. Therefore, while brain is a tissue rich in nonerythroid spectrin, the concentration of these immunoreactive analogues is quite variable within distinct cellular entities of the cerebellum.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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