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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-02-15
    Description: Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-18
    Description: The Pacific hosts the largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, which are thought to intensify and expand under future climate change, with significant consequences for marine ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and fisheries. At present, no deep ventilation occurs in the North Pacific due to a persistent halocline, but relatively better-oxygenated subsurface North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) mitigates OMZ development in lower latitudes. Over the past decades, instrumental data show decreasing oxygenation in NPIW; however, long-term variations in middepth ventilation are potentially large, obscuring anthropogenic influences against millennial-scale natural background shifts. Here, we use paleoceanographic proxy evidence from the Okhotsk Sea, the foremost North Pacific ventilation region, to show that its modern oxygenated pattern is a relatively recent feature, with little to no ventilation before six thousand years ago, constituting an apparent Early–Middle Holocene (EMH) threshold or “tipping point.” Complementary paleomodeling results likewise indicate a warmer, saltier EMH NPIW, different from its modern conditions. During the EMH, the Okhotsk Sea switched from a modern oxygenation source to a sink, through a combination of sea ice loss, higher water temperatures, and remineralization rates, inhibiting ventilation. We estimate a strongly decreased EMH NPIW oxygenation of ∼30 to 50%, and increased middepth Pacific nutrient concentrations and carbon storage. Our results (i) imply that under past or future warmer-than-present conditions, oceanic biogeochemical feedback mechanisms may change or even switch direction, and (ii) provide constraints on the high-latitude North Pacific’s influence on mesopelagic ventilation dynamics, with consequences for large oceanic regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-08
    Description: The deglacial history of CO2 release from the deep North Pacific remains unresolved. This is due to conflicting indications about subarctic Pacific ventilation changes based on various marine proxies, especially for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS-1) when a rapid atmospheric CO2 rise occurs. Here, we use a complex Earth System Model to investigate the deglacial North Pacific overturning and its control on ocean stratification. Our results show an enhanced intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification coeval with intensified North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation during HS-1, compared to the Last Glacial Maximum. The stronger NPIW formation causes lower salinities and higher temperatures at intermediate depths. By lowering NPIW densities, this enlarges vertical density gradient and thus enhances intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification during HS-1. Physically, this process prevents the North Pacific deep waters from a better communication with the upper oceans, thus prolongs the existing isolation of glacial Pacific abyssal carbons during HS-1.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: The Kuroshio Current (KC) is the northward branch of the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPG) and exerts influence on the exchange of physical, chemical, and biological properties of downstream regions in the Pacific Ocean. Resolving long-term changes in the flow of the KC water masses is, therefore, crucial for advancing our understanding of the Pacific's role in global ocean and climate variability. Here, we reconstruct changes in KC dynamics over the past 20 ka based on grain-size spectra, clay mineral, and Sr–Nd isotope constraints of sediments from the northern Okinawa Trough. Combined with published sediment records surrounding the NPG, we suggest that the KC remained in the Okinawa Trough throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Together with Earth-System-Model simulations, our results additionally indicate that KC intensified considerably during the early Holocene (EH). The synchronous establishment of the KC “water barrier” and the modern circulation pattern during the EH highstand shaped the sediment transport patterns. This is ascribed to the precession-induced increase in the occurrence of La Niña-like state and the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon. The synchronicity of the shifts in the intensity of the KC, Kuroshio extension, and El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability may further indicate that the western branch of the NPG has been subject to basin-scale changes in wind stress curl over the North Pacific in response to low-latitude insolation. Superimposed on this long-term trend are high-amplitude, large century, and millennial-scale variations during last 5 ka, which are ascribed to the advent of modern ENSO when the equatorial oceans experienced stronger insolation during the boreal winter.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: Arctic and subarctic regions are sensitive to climate change and, reversely, provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. With a focus on discovering paleoclimate and paleoceanographic evolution in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans during the last 20,000 years, we proposed this German–Sino cooperation program according to the announcement “Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) of the Federal Republic of Germany for a German–Sino cooperation program in the marine and polar research”. Our proposed program integrates the advantages of the Arctic and Subarctic marine sediment studies in AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and FIO (First Institute of Oceanography). For the first time, the collection of sediment cores can cover all climatological key regions in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans. Furthermore, the climate modeling work at AWI enables a “Data-Model Syntheses”, which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cells of the human promyelocytic HL-60 line, when treated with a variety of antitumor agents in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), or with CHX alone, rapidly undergo apoptosis (“active cell death”). It is presumed, therefore, that such cells are “primed” to apoptosis in that no new protein synthesis is required for induction of their death. We have studied apoptosis of HL-60 cells triggered by the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CAM) in the absence and presence of CHX and apoptosis induced by CHX alone. Two different flcw cytometric methods were used, each allowing us to relate the apoptosis-associated DNA degradation to the cell cycle position. Apoptosis induced by CAM was limited to S phase cells, e.g., at a CAM concentration of 0.15 μM, nearly 90% of the S phase cells underwent apoptosis after 4 h. In contrast, apoptosis triggered by CHX was indiscriminate, affecting all phases of the cycle: ∼40% of the cells from each phase the cycle underwent apoptosis at 5 μM CHX concentration. When CAM and CHX were added together, the pattern of apoptosis resembled that of cycloheximide alone, namely, cells in all phases of the cycle in similar proportion were affected. Thus, CHX, while itself inducing apoptosis of a fraction of cells, protected the S phase cells against apoptosis triggered by CAM. Because CHX (5 μM) did not significantly affect the rate of cell progression through S phase, the observed protective effect was most likely directly related to inhibition of protein synthesis, rather than to its possible indirect effect on DNA replication. Furthermore, whereas apoptosis (DNA degradation) triggered by CAM was prevented by the serine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-lysylchloromethyl ketone (TLCK), this process was actually potentiated by this inhibitor when induced by CHX. The present data indicate differences in mechanism of apoptosis triggered by CAM (and perhaps other antitumor drugs) as compared with CHX. Apoptosis caused by CHX may be unique in that it may not involve new protein synthesis. These data are compatible with the assumption that the loss of a hypothetical, rapidly turning over suppressor of apoptosis may be the trigger of apoptosis of HL-60 cells treated with CHX, whereas de novo protein synthesis is required when apoptosis is triggered by other agents. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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