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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection has a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1761
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Skin temperatures, shear forces, surface static pressures, boundary layer pitot pressures, and boundary layer total temperatures were measured on the external surface of a hollow cylinder that was 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter and was mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 (a local Mach number of 2.9) and at wall to recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The local Reynolds number had a nominal value of 4,300,000 per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. In addition, boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor was obtained from the heat transfer and skin friction measurements. The measured data are compared with several boundary layer prediction methods.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: H-1101 , NASA-TP-1764
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A structural performance and resizing finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the reentry heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle. Two typical wing cross sections and a midfuselage cross section were selected for the analysis. The surface heat inputs to the thermal models were obtained from aerodynamic heating analyses, which assumed a purely turbulent boundary layer, a purely laminar boundary layer, separated flow, and transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The effect of internal radiation was found to be quite significant. With the effect of the internal radiation considered, the wing lower skin temperature became about 39 C (70 F) lower. The results were compared with fight data for space transportation system, trajectory 1. The calculated and measured temperatures compared well for the wing if laminar flow was assumed for the lower surface and bay one upper surface and if separated flow was assumed for the upper surfaces of bays other than bay one. For the fuselage, good agreement between the calculated and measured data was obtained if laminar flow was assumed for the bottom surface. The structural temperatures were found to reach their peak values shortly before touchdown. In addition, the finite element solutions were compared with those obtained from the conventional finite difference solutions.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center Computational Aspects of Heat Transfer in Struct.; p 295-325
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Surface heating rates and surface temperatures for a space shuttle reentry profile were calculated for two wing cross sections and one fuselage cross section. Heating rates and temperatures at 12 locations on the wing and 6 locations on the fuselage are presented. The heating on the lower wing was most severe, with peak temperatures reaching values of 1240 C for turbulent flow and 900 C for laminar flow. For the fuselage, the most severe heating occured on the lower glove surface where peak temperatures of 910 C and 700 C were calculated for turbulent flow and laminar flow, respectively. Aluminum structural temperatures were calculated using a finite difference thermal analyzer computer program, and the predicted temperatures are compared to measured flight data. Skin temperatures measured on the lower surface of the wing and bay 1 of the upper surface of the wing agreed best with temperatures calculated assuming laminar flow. The measured temperatures at bays two and four on the upper surface of the wing were in quite good agreement with the temperatures calculated assuming separated flow. The measured temperatures on the lower forward spar cap of bay four were in good agreement with values predicted assuming laminar flow.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center Computational Aspects of Heat Transfer in Struct.; p 271-294
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Skin temperatures, shearing forces, surface static pressures, and boundary layer pitot pressures and total temperatures were measured on a hollow cylinder 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 and at wall-to-recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The free stream Reynolds number had a minimal value of 4.2 million per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. Boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor of 1.11 was obtained from the measured heat transfer and skin friction data. The skin friction coefficients predicted by the theory of van Driest were in excellent agreement with the measurements. Theoretical heat transfer coefficients, in the form of Stanton numbers calculated by using a modified Reynolds analogy between skin friction and heat transfer, were compared with measured values. The measured velocity profiles were compared to Coles' incompressible law-of-the-wall profile.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: YF-12 Experiments Symp., Vol. 1; p 259-286
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Preflight predictions of the structural temperature distributions during entry are compared with data from the initial Shuttle flight. Finite element thermal analysis programming was used to model the heat flow on Shuttle structures and actual gas properties of air were employed in the analyses of aerodynamic heating. Laminar, separated, and turbulent heat fluxes were calculated for varying locations on the craft using velocity-attitude and angle-of-attack projections taken from the nominal STS-1 trajectory. Temperature time histories of the first flight are compared with laminar and turbulent flow assumptions and an unpredicted rapid cooling 1800 sec into entry is credited to inaccurate assumptions of structural heat dissipative properties or flow conditions in that time phase of the flight; additional discrepancies in descriptions of heating of the upper fuselage are attributed to a lack of knowledge of the complex flow patterns existing over that area of the Shuttle body.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 81-2382 , Flight Testing Conference; Nov. 11-13, 1981; Las Vegas, NV
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with the flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection had a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.
    Keywords: SPACE TRANSPORTATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85907 , H-1254 , NAS 1.15:85907 , AIAA PAPER 84-1781 , AIAA Thermophys. Conf.; 24-28 Jun. 1984; Snowmass, CO; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-11-27
    Description: MicroRNA-22 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in gastric cancer by directly targeting MMP14 and Snail Cell Death and Disease 6, e2000 (November 2015). doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.297 Authors: Q-F Zuo, L-Y Cao, T Yu, L Gong, L-N Wang, Y-L Zhao, B Xiao & Q-M Zou
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-12-20
    Description: The North Qaidam Orogenic Belt (NQOB), lying at the northern margin of the Tibet Plateau, records two orogenic cycles: A Proterozoic cycle related to the amalgamation and breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, and an Early Palaeozoic cycle including oceanic subduction and continental deep subduction. At present, the only information about the Proterozoic cycle is the concurrent c . 1000–900 Ma magmatic and metamorphic events, which limited the understanding of the Proterozoic evolution of NQOB and the relationship between the Qaidam Block and other Rodinia fragments. In this study, a kyanite-bearing eclogite was identified in Yuka terrane. It has positive slope chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns, similar to present-day N-MORB. LA–ICP–MS zircon U–Pb dating obtained a protolith age of 1273 Ma and an eclogite facies metamorphic age of 437 Ma, which is similar to the continental deep subduction age of the Yuka terrane. Zircon Lu–Hf analysis show that the magmatic zircon cores have high εHf(t) of 8.36–15.98 and T DM 1 of 1450–1131 Ma (Mean=1303±55 Ma, consistent with its protolith age within error), indicating a juvenile crust protolith of the eclogite. The MORB-like whole rock composition and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf analysis indicate that the protolith of the kyanite-bearing eclogite was a Mesoproterozoic oceanic slice. P–T pseudosection analysis shows that the kyanite-bearing eclogite experienced four metamorphic stages: (1) a prograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+talc+lawsonite+phengite+quartz at 22.4–23.2 kbar and 585 °C; (2) a peak stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+lawsonite+phengite+coesite at 32.5 kbar and 670 °C; (3) an early retrograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+kyanite+phengite+coesite/quartz±lawsonite at 27.1–30.0 kbar and 670–690 °C; and (4) a late retrograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+epidote+hornblende+phengite+quartz at 〈18.0 kbar. The established clockwise P–T path is similar with other continental-type eclogites in this area. On the basis of the geochemical and geochronological data, as well as the P–T path, we suggest that the protolith of the kyanite-bearing eclogite was emplaced in the active margin of the Qaidam Block during the assembly of Rodinia and underwent continental deep subduction in the Early Palaeozoic. We conclude that (1) the Qaidam Block participated in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. It was situated at or proximal to the margin of the supercontinent and probably close to India, east Antarctica and Tarim; (2) both Mesoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic oceanic crust slices occur in the North Qaidam orogenic belt. Thus special caution is needed when using the metamorphic ages of oceanic affinity eclogites without protolith ages to constrain the evolution history of the North Qaidam UHPM belt. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0263-4929
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-1314
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-11-01
    Description: Paleogene saline lacustrine carbonate rocks are important fractured reservoirs in the western Qaidam Basin. Core data show that most fractures are small, steeply dipping faults; bedding-plane slip faults; and subvertical opening-mode fractures. Other fractures are diagenetic in origin. Fracture occurrence and abundance patterns are controlled by lithology, bed thickness, and proximity to larger faults. Fractures are generally filled with calcite, gypsum, or glauberite (Na2Ca[SO4]2); the degree of fracture filling determines the effectiveness of fractures as fluid conduits and the distribution of high-quality reservoirs. Open fractures not only provide the main pathways for fluid flow, but also enhance the free fluid index and the free fluid saturation measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and determine the potential production rates of tight carbonate reservoirs. The open fractures are parallel to and occur near faults, and many do not coincide with the present-day direction of the maximum horizontal compressive stress.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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