The North Qaidam Orogenic Belt (NQOB), lying at the northern margin of the Tibet Plateau, records two orogenic cycles: A Proterozoic cycle related to the amalgamation and breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, and an Early Palaeozoic cycle including oceanic subduction and continental deep subduction. At present, the only information about the Proterozoic cycle is the concurrent c . 1000–900 Ma magmatic and metamorphic events, which limited the understanding of the Proterozoic evolution of NQOB and the relationship between the Qaidam Block and other Rodinia fragments. In this study, a kyanite-bearing eclogite was identified in Yuka terrane. It has positive slope chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns, similar to present-day N-MORB. LA–ICP–MS zircon U–Pb dating obtained a protolith age of 1273 Ma and an eclogite facies metamorphic age of 437 Ma, which is similar to the continental deep subduction age of the Yuka terrane. Zircon Lu–Hf analysis show that the magmatic zircon cores have high εHf(t) of 8.36–15.98 and T DM 1 of 1450–1131 Ma (Mean=1303±55 Ma, consistent with its protolith age within error), indicating a juvenile crust protolith of the eclogite. The MORB-like whole rock composition and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf analysis indicate that the protolith of the kyanite-bearing eclogite was a Mesoproterozoic oceanic slice. P–T pseudosection analysis shows that the kyanite-bearing eclogite experienced four metamorphic stages: (1) a prograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+talc+lawsonite+phengite+quartz at 22.4–23.2 kbar and 585 °C; (2) a peak stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+lawsonite+phengite+coesite at 32.5 kbar and 670 °C; (3) an early retrograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+kyanite+phengite+coesite/quartz±lawsonite at 27.1–30.0 kbar and 670–690 °C; and (4) a late retrograde stage with the assemblage garnet+omphacite+epidote+hornblende+phengite+quartz at 〈18.0 kbar. The established clockwise P–T path is similar with other continental-type eclogites in this area. On the basis of the geochemical and geochronological data, as well as the P–T path, we suggest that the protolith of the kyanite-bearing eclogite was emplaced in the active margin of the Qaidam Block during the assembly of Rodinia and underwent continental deep subduction in the Early Palaeozoic. We conclude that (1) the Qaidam Block participated in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. It was situated at or proximal to the margin of the supercontinent and probably close to India, east Antarctica and Tarim; (2) both Mesoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic oceanic crust slices occur in the North Qaidam orogenic belt. Thus special caution is needed when using the metamorphic ages of oceanic affinity eclogites without protolith ages to constrain the evolution history of the North Qaidam UHPM belt. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.