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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministers für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit: Wasser: Forschungsbericht 102 04 250
    Type: Book , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Springer
    In:  Helgoland Marine Research, 52 . pp. 219-234.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: About 80 non-indigenous species are assumed to have been introduced into the North Sea by transoceanic shipping and aquaculture. The number is certainly underestimated as most small organisms received insufficient attention at the species level. Also, the seafaring tradition of the North Sea countries is much longer than our biological surveys are. Most exotic invertebrates originate from the western Atlantic and were introduced by shipping, while most algae stem from the Pacific and came with the introduced oysters. A peak of newcomers was observed in the 1970s. Most of the arrivals became established in brackish environments, at harbor sites and in the vicinity of oyster farms, fouling on hard substrates or living as epibionts. A few live in sediments, are holoplanktonic or are parasites. At the open coast, approximately 6% of the macrobenthic species are exotics, while in estuaries their share is up to 20%. Most exotics have been encountered in the southern North Sea first, and many did not spread further north. About 25% of the established non-natives are widespread and attain locally high abundances. As a consequence, some inshore habitats are entirely dominated by exotics. The overall effect on the ecosystem seems to be more additive than one of displacement. This suggests that the coastal biota of the North Sea are quite capable of accommodating newcomers. However, this is no guarantee that the next introduced species may not cause severe ecological change or economic harm. There is a need to minimize the risk of unintentional introductions by ballast water treatment and by adhering to quarantine procedures in aquaculture. Current research on exotics in the North Sea is regarded as inadequate for proper evaluation and management requirements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    In:  Die Profitaucher, 3 . pp. 18-21.
    Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: The Asian decapod Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835) was first recorded in European waters in 1994. The first specimens were collected in the estuary of Charente Maritime on the west coast of France close to La Rochelle. The current range in Europe covers Spanish shallow water habitats of the Bay of Biscay to areas north of La Rochelle (France). Densities of up to 20 specimens per square metre occur. This species has a high temperature and salinity tolerace and will expand its distribution in European waters. It is not clear whether this crab was introduced by shipping in ballast water or as a fouling organism. Based on a study of ship hull fouling in German dry docks this account provides evidence that hull fouling is a likely vector for the introduction of this crab. In August 1993, six juvenile specimens of H. penicillatus were removed from the hull of a car-carrier. After its journey from Japan into European waters this vessel docked in the port of Bremerhaven (Germany) for a routine inspection and coating with antifouling paint.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-01
    Description: Highlights: • Monitoring of non-indigenous and cryptogenic species/populations needs to be initiated. • Monitoring should focus on bridgehead sites and dispersal hubs. • Monitoring methods should be internationally harmonized. • Rapid assessments of particular species may provide timely but limited information. • Monitoring data should be assembled in open access continually updated databases. Abstract: Non-indigenous species (NIS) are recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and monitoring their presence and impacts is considered a prerequisite for marine environmental management and sustainable development. However, monitoring for NIS seldom takes place except for a few baseline surveys. With the goal of serving the requirements of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, the paper highlights the importance of early detection of NIS in dispersal hubs for a rapid management response, and of long-term monitoring for tracking the effects of NIS within recipient ecosystems, including coastal systems especially vulnerable to introductions. The conceptual framework also demonstrates the need for port monitoring, which should serve the above mentioned requirements but also provide the required information for implementation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments. Large scale monitoring of native, cryptogenic and NIS in natural and man-made habitats will collectively lead to meeting international requirements. Cost-efficient rapid assessments of target species may provide timely information for managers and policy-advisers focusing on particular NIS at particular localities, but this cannot replace long-term monitoring. To support legislative requirements, collected data should be verified and stored in a publicly accessible and routinely updated database/information system. Public involvement should be encouraged as part of monitoring programs where feasible.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-04-12
    Description: The most effective way to manage species transfers is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. Soon, international ships will be required to meet numeric ballast discharge standards using ballast water treatment (BWT) systems, and ballast water exchange (BWE), currently required by several countries, will be phased out. However, there are concerns that BWT systems may not function reliably in fresh and/or turbid water. A land-based evaluation of simulated ‘BWE plus BWT’ versus ‘BWT alone’ demonstrated potential benefits of combining BWE with BWT for protection of freshwater ecosystems. We conducted ship-based testing to compare the efficacy of ‘BWE plus BWT’ versus ‘BWT alone’ on voyages starting with freshwater ballast. We tested the hypotheses that there is an additional effect of ‘BWE plus BWT’ compared to ‘BWT alone’ on the reduction of plankton, and that taxa remaining after ‘BWE plus BWT’ will be marine (low risk for establishment at freshwater recipient ports). Our study found that BWE has significant additional effect on the reduction of plankton, and this effect increases with initial abundance. As per expectations, ‘BWT alone’ tanks contained higher risk freshwater or euryhaline taxa at discharge, while ‘BWE plus BWT’ tanks contained mostly lower risk marine taxa unlikely to survive in recipient freshwater ecosystems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Several legal and administrative instruments aimed to reduce the spread of non-indigenous species, that may pose harm to the environment, economy and/or human health, were developed in recent years at international and national levels, such as the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, the EU Regulation on Invasive Alien Species and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the US Invasive Species Act, the Biosecurity Act of New Zealand, etc. The effectiveness of these instruments can only be measured by successes in the prevention of new introductions. We propose an indicator, the arrival of new non-indigenous species (nNIS), which helps to assess introduction rates, especially in relation to pathways and vectors of introduction, and is aimed to support management. The technical precondition for the calculation of nNIS is the availability of a global, continuously updated and verified source of information on aquatic non-indigenous species. Such a database is needed, because the indicator should be calculated at different geographical scales: (1) for a particular area, such as port or coast of a country within a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME); (2) for a whole LME; and (3) for a larger biogeographical region, including two or more neighboring LMEs. The geographical scale of nNIS helps to distinguish between a primary introduction and secondary spread, which may involve different pathways and vectors. This, in turn, determines the availability of management options, because it is more feasible to prevent a primary introduction than to stop subsequent secondary spread. The definition of environmental target, size of assessment unit and possible limitations of the indicator are also discussed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
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    Bundesamt für Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie
    In:  Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift / Supplement, Suppl. 2 . pp. 141-149.
    Publication Date: 2018-08-15
    Description: Damit ein Schiff unabhängig vom Beladungszustand stabil im Wasser liegt, muß ein Gewichtsausgleich durch Ballastwasser geschaffen werden. Dieses Wasser wird in den Häfen beim Be- und Entladen des Schiffes aufgenommen oder abgepumpt. Zusammen mit dem Ballastwasser können auch Pflanzen und Tiere (z.B. Algen, Kleinkrebse und Fische) mit aufgenommen werden, und so auf dem Seewege als „blinde Passagiere" weite Strecken zurücklegen. Findet ein eingeschleppter Organismus am Ziel seiner Reise günstige Bedingungen vor, so kann er sich dort massenhaft ausbreiten, und so zum ökologischen und ökonomischen Schädling werden. Ein Forschungsvorhaben von Umweltbundesamt, dem Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, und der Universität Hamburg, soll nun klären, ob mit dem Schiffsverkehr eingeschleppte Organismen eine Gefahr für deutsche Gewässer darstellen.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: One of the critical issues in species invasion ecology is the need to understand and evaluate the dimensions and processes of aquatic organisms transfer with vessels ballast water. The assessment of the quantity of ballast water discharged as the medium of transfer is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management. The possibility to assess this in advance of the vessel's arrival to a port enhances the management process and gives port authorities a decision supporting tool to respond in time with adequate measures. A new generic ballast water discharge assessment model has been prepared. The model is based on vessel cargo operation and vessel dimensions. The model was tested on real shipping traffic and ballast water discharge data for the Port of Koper, Slovenia. The results show high confidence in predicting whether a vessel will discharge ballast water, as well in assessing the quantity of ballast water (to be) discharged. Highlights: ► A model to predict ballast water discharge was developed. ► The model was applied to the Port of Koper and verified on reported data from vessels. ► The model assesses vessel specific ballast water discharges. ► Ballast water discharge information is crucial for risk assessment and management. ► The model is a decision support tool for a more effective management in shipping.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    NRC
    In:  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59 (7). pp. 1175-1188.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: There are about 100 nonindigenous species recorded in the Baltic Sea. Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets that can be identified as "centres of xenodiversity". Fewer than 70 of these species have established reproducing populations. Dominant invasion vectors include unintentional introductions via ballast water, tank sediments, and hull fouling, aquaculture, and the construction of canals that have facilitated active or passive natural dispersal. Of the approximately 60 unintentionally introduced species with a known invasion history, 38 are transoceanic (including 19 Atlantic species of American origin) and 18 of Ponto-Caspian origin. Species that have caused economic damage to fisheries, shipping, and industry include the hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia, the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi, and the bivalve Dreissena polymorpha. The Baltic Sea has served as a secondary source of nonindigenous species to the North American Great Lakes. Further study is warranted to quantify large-scale ecosystem changes in the Baltic associated with establishment and population growth of nonindigenous species and to prevent future invasions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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