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  • 1
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Blood-gas transducers ; Foetal scalp ; Mass spectrometry ; Transducers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A number of authors have described the design of transducers to be used with mass spectrometers for the skin-surface measurement of gases in newborn infants and adults. We have also previously considered the feasibility of designing a transducer for attachment to the foetal scalp during labour. This paper describes the problems which have been encountered in producing a practical transducer design for foetal scalp use. The major problem has been that of achieving adequate signal-to-noise ratio for the low oxygen levels encountered in the human foetus. A mathematical model is described, and results of the use of the model in optimising critical transducer design parameters are presented. Typical recordings obtained during labour are shown for O2, CO2 and N2O.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Dip-coated electroenzymic glucose transducer ; In vitroperformance ; Optimisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The details of construction and the performance characteristics of a dipcoated electroenzymic glucose transducer comprising an H2O2 electrode coated with a layer of glucose oxidase encapsulated in cellulose acetate and overlaid with a layer of polyurethane are presented. The steady-state current increases when the glucose oxidase and cellulose acetate concentrations of the dip-coating solutions are increased, but high cellulose acetate concentrations yield thick and mechanically unstable membranes. A compromise between current yield and mechanical stability can, however, be achieved by employing glucose oxidase and cellulose acetate concentrations of 200 mg ml−1 and 2–5 g 100 ml−1, respectively. A polyurethane concentration of 6 g 100ml−1 is optimal both in terms of the current yield and the linearity of response. The relationship between steady-state current and D-glucose concentration is approximately linear over the concentration range 0·5 to 11·5 mm, and if correction is made for deviations from linearity at higher glucose concentrations, concentrations in excess of 20 mM can readily be quantified. The steady-state current is pH and temperature dependent, but the dependencies are relatively small in the physiological range. The mean rate of decrease of the glucose current during long-term operation of the optimised transducer is 0·83 per cent of the initial current per hour at 37°C. The hydrated electrodes perform satisfactorily after storage for more than two weeks at room temperature. the transducers have a mean response time [t 90%] of 50 s or less.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1996-03-01
    Description: SUMMARYTwelve red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds from a research facility in Eastern Scotland were randomly divided into two groups between June and September to study the physiological response to three management practices, given sequentially, which were expected to cause increasing levels of stress (herding; herding and handling; and herding, handling and a veterinary procedure). One group of animals received a long-acting neuroleptic (LAN; perphenazine enanthate and zuclopenthixol acetate) on three occasions at 4-week intervals. Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE) was used to obtain blood samples remotely before, during and after the application of each of the stressors. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein (TP), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and testosterone (T) were measured and heart rates recorded. The ABSE provided a useful means of collecting blood samples without the superimposition of stress factors associated with conventional sampling. Increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol (P
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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