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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The results of a dynamic/thermodynamic numerical model of Arctic sea ice are compared with satellite images from the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer. The model combines aspects of two previous sea ice models those of Parkinson and Washington and Ling, Rasmussen, and Campbell. A solid/fluid model basically follows the formulation of the Parkinson and Washington model with the addition of the constitutive equation and equation of state from the Ling model. The Parkinson and Washington model simulates the seasonal cycle of sea ice thicknesses and concentrations with a horizontal resolution of roughly 200 km and a timestep of 8 hours. The thermodynamics are calculated through energy balances at the interfaces between ice and air, water and ice, and water and air. The ice dynamics are calculated through a momentum equation balancing air stress, water stress, dynamic topography, and Coriolis force, with an adjustment for internal ice resistance.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Geological Survey US Geological Survey Polar Res. Symp.; p 40-41
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The 3-day images from the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer were combined to form monthly average maps and contour plots. These show clearly the yearly cycle from minimum ice extent in February to maximum ice extent from August to September and the spatial distribution of ice 15 to 50 percent concentrated, 50 to 85 percent concentrated, and 85 to 100 percent concentrated. The yearly cycle of the monthly extent of ice is plotted for each of the four years (1973-76). The total 4-year range in monthly mean concentrations (over the 30 km x 30 km grid elements with ice present) is 50 to 80 percent, and the yearly cycle is far less distinct than that for the ice areas.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: International Geophysical Year World Data Center A Snow Watch 1980; p 79-86
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An algorithm was developed for calculating simultaneously SSTs, SWs, and TAUs on a global basis using only the 6.6 and 18 GHz channels of the SMMR. Samples of the retrievals were calculated in each of eight of the SMMR years and found to produce independent results, consistent with weather charts and climatic records, even in the presence of high winds. Another new algorithm for calculating high-latitude scalar winds from Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data was devised and tuned with surface observations from a number of documented Arctic Polar Low events. The algorithm utilizes the horizontally and vertically polarized radiances from the 0.8 and 1.7 cm wavelength channels of the ten-channel SMMR to retrieve near surface oceanic scalar winds and cloud water in the column, and takes advantage of the relatively small fluctuations in atmospheric water vapor at high latitudes. An advantage of this algorithm for high latitude winds from SMMR over the global algorithm is an inherently better spatial resolution as a result of the shorter wavelengths used.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Laboratory for Oceans; p 143-145
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The SMMR instrument onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite has been in operation since October 1978. It provided global coverage of passive microwave observations at 6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, and 37 GHz. The oberved brightness temperature can be used to retrieve geophysical parameters, principally sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapor and liquid water content over oceans, sea ice concentration, and snow cover over land. The SMME CELL-ALL Tape contains earth-located calibrated brightness temperature data which have been appropriately binned into cells of various grid sizes, allowing intercomparisons of observations made at different frequencies (with corresponding different footprint sizes). This user's guide describes the operation of the instrument, the flow of the data processing the calibration procedure, and the characteristics of the calibrated brightness temperatures and how they are binned. Detailed tape specifications and lists of available data are also provided.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: REPT-88-181 , NAS 1.61:1210 , NASA-RP-1210
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data acquired with the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite for a six-week period including the 1983 MIZEX in Fram Strait were analyzed with the use of a previously developed procedure for calculating sea ice concentration, multiyear fraction, and ice temperature. These calculations can compared with independent observations made on the surface and from aircraft in order to check the validity of the calculations based on SMMR data. The calculation of multiyear fraction, which was known earlier to be invalid near the melting point of sea ice, was of particular interest during this period. The indication of multiyear ice was found to disappear a number of times, presumably corresponding to freeze/thaw cycles which occurred in this time period. Both grid-print maps and grey-scale images of total sea ice concentration and multiyear sea ice fraction for the entire period are included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86170 , NASA-TM-86170
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperature measurements over the global oceans have been examined with the help of statistical and empirical techniques. Such analyses show that zonal averages of brightness temperature measured by SMMR, over the oceans, on a large scale are primarily influenced by the water vapor in the atmosphere. Liquid water in the clouds and rain, which has a much smaller spatial and temporal scale, contributes substantially to the variability of the SMMR measurements within the latitudinal zones. The surface wind not only increases the surface emissivity but through its interactions with the atmosphere produces correlations, in the SMMR brightness temperature data, that have significant meteorological implications. It is found that a simple meteorological model can explain the general characteristics of the SMMR data. With the help of this model methods to infer over the global oceans, the surface temperature, liquid water content in the atmosphere, and surface wind speed are developed. Monthly mean estimates of the sea surface temperature and surface winds are compared with the ship measurements. Estimates of liquid water content in the atmosphere are consistent with earlier satellite measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:84927 , NASA-TM-84927
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-SP-459 , LC-83-600167 , NAS 1.21:459
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The microwave brightness temperature for snow fields was studied assuming that the snow cover consists of closely packed scattering spheres which do not interact coherently. The Mie scattering theory was used to compute the volume scattering albedo. It is shown that in the wavelength range from 0.8 to 2.8 cm, most of the micro-radiation emanates from a layer 10 meters or less in thickness. It is concluded that it is possible to determine snow accumulation rates as well as near-surface temperature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: X-910-75-36 , NASA-TM-X-70871
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Bering Sea Experiment (BESEX) was conducted in February and March 1973 to study ice cover, sea state and zones of precipitation by means of airborne microwave radiometers over the Bering Sea. The images were computer processed from satellite data tapes. In processing the tapes, compensation was made for satellite attitude and altitude variations, as well as for image rectification. Visual imagery was taken in the 0.4 to 1.1-u range, and infrared imagery in the 8.0 to 13.0-u range.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70692 , NOO-TR-245 , X-910-74-186
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth were obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals during the winter of 1972-1973. The major discoveries resulting from an analysis of these data are as follows: (1) Large discrepancies exist between the climatic norm ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. (2) The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. (3) Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. (4) The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70493 , X-652-73-269
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