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  • 1
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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution January 1983
    Description: A simple model for the bottom boundary layer on the continental shelf is presented. The governing equations are developed for a stratified, turbulent Ekman layer in a combined wave and current flow over a moveable sediment bed. An eddy diffusivity closure scheme that includes the effect of suspended sediment, temperature, and salinity induced stratification on the vertical turbulent diffusion of mass and momentum couples the resulting unsteady conservation equations for fluid momentum, fluid mass, and suspended sediment mass. The wave velocity, current velocity, and suspended sediment concentration profiles predicted by the simultaneous solution of the conservation equations require the physical bottom roughness and a sediment reference concentrati on to be specified as boundary conditions. The physical bottom roughness associated with biologically generated bedforms, wave generated ripples, and near bed sediment transport are calculated as functions of the flow and sediment conditions. Using expressions for the height of sediment transporting layer and the sediment velocity, an expression for the sediment reference concentration is developed by matching laboratory measurements of sediment transport rates in oscillatory flow. The model predicts that the bottom flow field is highly dependent on (1) the nonlinear wave and current interaction, which increases the boundary shear stress and enhances vertical turbulent diffusion, (2) the effect of the boundary shear stress on a moveable sediment bed, which determines the physical bottom roughness and the amount of sediment in suspension, and (3) the effect of stable stratification, which inhibits vertical turbulent transport and couples the flow to the suspended sediment and fluid density profiles. The validity of the theoretical approach is supported by model predictions that are in excellent agreement with high quality data collected during two continental shelf bottom boundary layer experiments for a wide range of flow and bottom conditions.
    Description: Funding for the work resulting in this Thesis has been provided by the American Gas Association (Project No. PR-153-126), the National Science Foundation (Grant No. OCE~8014930), and NOAA-Sea Grant (NA-79AA-D-0010l; NA 79AA-D-00102).
    Keywords: Boundary layer ; Sediment transport ; Stratified flow
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 30, no. 2 (2017): 92–103, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.227.
    Description: The tropical Atlantic basin is one of seven global regions where tropical cyclones (TCs) commonly originate, intensify, and affect highly populated coastal areas. Under appropriate atmospheric conditions, TC intensification can be linked to upper-ocean properties. Errors in Atlantic TC intensification forecasts have not been significantly reduced during the last 25 years. The combined use of in situ and satellite observations, particularly of temperature and salinity ahead of TCs, has the potential to improve the representation of the ocean, more accurately initialize hurricane intensity forecast models, and identify areas where TCs may intensify. However, a sustained in situ ocean observing system in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea dedicated to measuring subsurface temperature, salinity, and density fields in support of TC intensity studies and forecasts has yet to be designed and implemented. Autonomous and Lagrangian platforms and sensors offer cost-effective opportunities to accomplish this objective. Here, we highlight recent efforts to use autonomous platforms and sensors, including surface drifters, profiling floats, underwater gliders, and dropsondes, to better understand air-sea processes during high-wind events, particularly those geared toward improving hurricane intensity forecasts. Real-time data availability is key for assimilation into numerical weather forecast models.
    Description: The NOAA/AOML component of this work was originally funded by the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013, also known as the Sandy Supplemental, and is currently funded through NOAA research grant NA14OAR4830103 by AOML and CARICOOS, as well as NOAA’s Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The TEMPESTS component of this work is supported by NOAA through the Cooperative Institute for the North Atlantic Region (NA13OAR4830233) with additional analysis support from the WHOI Summer Student Fellowship Program, Nortek Student Equipment Grant, and the Rutgers University Teledyne Webb Graduate Student Fellowship Program. The drifter component of this work is funded through NOAA grant NA15OAR4320071(11.432) in support of the Global Drifter Program.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Oceanography Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 20, 4 (2007): 156-167.
    Description: Since the end of the Cold War, the US Navy has had an increasing interest in continental shelves and slopes as operational areas. To work in such areas requires a good understanding of ocean acoustics, coastal physical oceanography, and, in the modern era, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) operations.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-04-07
    Description: High quality bottom boundary layer measurements obtained in the CODE region off Northern California are described. Bottom tripod velocity measurements and supporting data obtained during typical spring and early summer conditions and during a winter storm are analyzed to obtain both velocity profiles and mean bottom stress and bottom roughness estimates. The spring/summer measurements were taken in June, 1981 during CODE-1 at C3 (90 m) by Grant and Williams, WHOI; the winter storm data was taken in November 1980 prior to CODE-1 at the R2 (80 m) site by Cacchione and Drake, USGS. The mean near-bottom (〈 2m) velocity profiles are logarithmic (R2 〉 0.993) much of the time for everyday flows; deviations are primarily due to kinematical effects induced by unsteadiness from internal waves. Stress profiles show the logarithmic layer corresponds to a constant stress layer as expected for the inertial region of a boundary layer. Stress estimates made from dissipation and profile techniques agree at the 95 percent confidence level. Typical z0 values estimated from measurements greater than 30 cm above the bottom have magnitudes of approximately 1 cm; an order of magnitude larger than the physical bottom roughness. Corresponding u* values have typical magnitudes of 0.5-1.0 cm/sec; more than twice as large as expected from a usual drag law prediction (corresponding to over a factor of four in mean stress). These values are demonstrated to be consistent with those expected for combined wave and current flows predicted theoretically by Grant and Madsen (1979) and Smith (1977). The u* values estimated from the CODE-1 data and predicted by the Grant and Madsen (1979) model typically agree within 10-15 percent. Similar results are demonstrated for the winter storm conditions during which large sediment transport occurs. (Typical z0 values are 4-6 cm; typical u* values are 3-6 cm/sec). The waves influencing the mid-shelf bottom stress estimates are 14-20 second swell associated with Southern and Western Pacific storms. These waves are present over most of the year. The results clearly demonstrate that waves must be taken into account in predicting bottom stress over the Northern California Shelf.
    Description: Prepared for the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE 80-14938.
    Keywords: Ocean waves ; Shear waves ; Boundary layer ; Ocean circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Domingues, R., Kuwano-Yoshida, A., Chardon-Maldonado, P., Todd, R. E., Halliwell, G., Kim, H., Lin, I., Sato, K., Narazaki, T., Shay, L. K., Miles, T., Glenn, S., Zhang, J. A., Jayne, S. R., Centurioni, L., Le Henaff, M., Foltz, G. R., Bringas, F., Ali, M. M., DiMarco, S. F., Hosoda, S., Fukuoka, T., LaCour, B., Mehra, A., Sanabia, E. R., Gyakum, J. R., Dong, J., Knaff, J. A., & Goni, G. Ocean observations in support of studies and forecasts of tropical and extratropical cyclones. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 446, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00446.
    Description: Over the past decade, measurements from the climate-oriented ocean observing system have been key to advancing the understanding of extreme weather events that originate and intensify over the ocean, such as tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical bomb cyclones (ECs). In order to foster further advancements to predict and better understand these extreme weather events, a need for a dedicated observing system component specifically to support studies and forecasts of TCs and ECs has been identified, but such a system has not yet been implemented. New technologies, pilot networks, targeted deployments of instruments, and state-of-the art coupled numerical models have enabled advances in research and forecast capabilities and illustrate a potential framework for future development. Here, applications and key results made possible by the different ocean observing efforts in support of studies and forecasts of TCs and ECs, as well as recent advances in observing technologies and strategies are reviewed. Then a vision and specific recommendations for the next decade are discussed.
    Description: This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Numbers: JP17K19093, JP16K12591, and JP16H01846).
    Keywords: tropical cyclones ; extratropical bomb cyclones ; upper-ocean temperature ; ocean heat content ; global ocean observing system ; weather extremes ; natural hazards ; coupled ocean-atmosphere forecasts
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-12-13
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Testor, P., de Young, B., Rudnick, D. L., Glenn, S., Hayes, D., Lee, C. M., Pattiaratchi, C., Hill, K., Heslop, E., Turpin, V., Alenius, P., Barrera, C., Barth, J. A., Beaird, N., Becu, G., Bosse, A., Bourrin, F., Brearley, J. A., Chao, Y., Chen, S., Chiggiato, J., Coppola, L., Crout, R., Cummings, J., Curry, B., Curry, R., Davis, R., Desai, K., DiMarco, S., Edwards, C., Fielding, S., Fer, I., Frajka-Williams, E., Gildor, H., Goni, G., Gutierrez, D., Haugan, P., Hebert, D., Heiderich, J., Henson, S., Heywood, K., Hogan, P., Houpert, L., Huh, S., Inall, M. E., Ishii, M., Ito, S., Itoh, S., Jan, S., Kaiser, J., Karstensen, J., Kirkpatrick, B., Klymak, J., Kohut, J., Krahmann, G., Krug, M., McClatchie, S., Marin, F., Mauri, E., Mehra, A., Meredith, M. P., Meunier, T., Miles, T., Morell, J. M., Mortier, L., Nicholson, S., O'Callaghan, J., O'Conchubhair, D., Oke, P., Pallas-Sanz, E., Palmer, M., Park, J., Perivoliotis, L., Poulain, P., Perry, R., Queste, B., Rainville, L., Rehm, E., Roughan, M., Rome, N., Ross, T., Ruiz, S., Saba, G., Schaeffer, A., Schonau, M., Schroeder, K., Shimizu, Y., Sloyan, B. M., Smeed, D., Snowden, D., Song, Y., Swart, S., Tenreiro, M., Thompson, A., Tintore, J., Todd, R. E., Toro, C., Venables, H., Wagawa, T., Waterman, S., Watlington, R. A., & Wilson, D. OceanGliders: A component of the integrated GOOS. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 422, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00422.
    Description: The OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and phenomena that are relevant for societal applications; and, (2) to contribute to the GOOS through real-time and delayed mode data dissemination. The OceanGliders program is distributed across national and regional observing systems and significantly contributes to integrated, multi-scale and multi-platform sampling strategies. OceanGliders shares best practices, requirements, and scientific knowledge needed for glider operations, data collection and analysis. It also monitors global glider activity and supports the dissemination of glider data through regional and global databases, in real-time and delayed modes, facilitating data access to the wider community. OceanGliders currently supports national, regional and global initiatives to maintain and expand the capabilities and application of gliders to meet key global challenges such as improved measurement of ocean boundary currents, water transformation and storm forecast.
    Description: The editorial team would like to recognize the support of the global glider community to this paper. Our requests for data and information were met with enthusiasm and welcome contributions from around the globe, clearly demonstrating to us a point made in this paper that there are many active and dedicated teams of glider operators and users. We should also acknowledge the support that OceanGliders has received from the WMO/IOC JCOMM-OCG and JCOMMOPS that have allowed this program to develop, encouraging us to articulate a vision for the role of gliders in the GOOS. We acknowledge support from the EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project funded under grant agreement No. 633211 and gratefully acknowledge the many agencies and programs that have supported underwater gliders: AlterEco, ANR, CFI, CIGOM, CLASS Ellet Array, CNES, CNRS/INSU, CONACyT, CSIRO, DEFRA, DFG/SFB-754, DFO, DGA, DSTL, ERC, FCO, FP7, and H2020 Europen Commission, HIMIOFoTS, Ifremer, IMOS, IMS, IOOS, IPEV, IRD, Israel MOST, JSPS, MEOPAR, NASA, NAVOCEANO (Navy), NERC, NFR, NJDEP, NOAA, NRC, NRL, NSF, NSERC, ONR, OSNAP, Taiwan MOST, SANAP-NRF, SENER, SIMS, Shell Exploration and Production Company, Sorbonne Université, SSB, UKRI, UNSW, Vettleson, Wallenberg Academy Fellowship, and WWF.
    Keywords: in situ ocean observing systems ; gliders ; boundary currents ; storms ; water transformation ; ocean data management ; autonomous oceanic platforms ; GOOS
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The NOAA National Underseas Research Program at Rutgers University is establishing a Long-term Ecosystem Observatory off New Jersey in 15 meters of water. As part of a bottom boundary layer study at this site, WHOI deployed a bottom instrument frame during the winter of 1993-94. The bottom instrument carried a current meter, a vertical array of optical back scattering sensors, temperature, pressure and conductivity sensors and an Acoustical Backscattering Sensor. The deployment was partially successful as the acoustic system failed. The other instrumentation worked well for 3 weeks returning data on winter conditions at the site. The extreme winter waves ended the experiment by tipping the instrument over on its side. The optical instrumentation was calibrated with sediment from the site, and the results from the experiment presented.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through Contract No. 4-25020 to Rutgers/SUNY National Underseas Research Program.
    Keywords: Sediment transport ; LEO-15 ; Acoustic backscatter
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: 2848458 bytes
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and phenomena that are relevant for societal applications; and, (2) to contribute to the GOOS through real-time and delayed mode data dissemination. The OceanGliders program is distributed across national and regional observing systems and significantly contributes to integrated, multi-scale and multi-platform sampling strategies. OceanGliders shares best practices, requirements, and scientific knowledge needed for glider operations, data collection and analysis. It also monitors global glider activity and supports the dissemination of glider data through regional and global databases, in real-time and delayed modes, facilitating data access to the wider community. OceanGliders currently supports national, regional and global initiatives to maintain and expand the capabilities and application of gliders to meet key global challenges such as improved measurement of ocean boundary currents, water transformation and storm forecast.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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