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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-07-17
    Description: A compelling body of research demonstrates associations between urban design and health, but this research is often not reflected in urban policies. This article reviews the literature on the science and practice of translating health research into urban policy and planning. Two Australian case studies demonstrate how policy frameworks can help guide evidence-based planning for healthy urban environments. To influence city planning, health researchers need to undertake policy-relevant research and understand policymaking processes. Policy frameworks can assist researchers to tailor research evidence and research translation strategies to the political and policymaking context. Strong links between urban policymakers and health researchers can help bridge the knowledge-policy divide. Policy frameworks can help researchers to identify and capitalise on windows of opportunity for evidence-based policy change. Doing so increases the likelihood of public health evidence informing urban policies that will create healthy liveable cities.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-11-10
    Description: Goals and pathways to achieve sustainable urban development have multiple interlinkages with human health and wellbeing. However, these interlinkages have not been examined in depth in recent discussions on urban sustainability and global urban science. This paper fills that gap by elaborating in detail the multiple links between urban sustainability and human health and by mapping research gaps at the interface of health and urban sustainability sciences. As researchers from a broad range of disciplines, we aimed to: 1) define the process of urbanization, highlighting distinctions from related concepts to support improved conceptual rigour in health research; 2) review the evidence linking health with urbanization, urbanicity, and cities and identify cross-cutting issues; and 3) highlight new research approaches needed to study complex urban systems and their links with health. This novel, comprehensive knowledge synthesis addresses issue of interest across multiple disciplines. Our review of concepts of urban development should be of particular value to researchers and practitioners in the health sciences, while our review of the links between urban environments and health should be of particular interest to those outside of public health. We identify specific actions to promote health through sustainable urban development that leaves no one behind, including: integrated planning; evidence-informed policy-making; and monitoring the implementation of policies. We also highlight the critical role of effective governance and equity-driven planning in progress towards sustainable, healthy, and just urban development.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-12-06
    Description: With not much to do in their neighborhood, youth may spend more time in the home engaged in screen-based activities. Screen time data from 2,790 youth in the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Survey were linked to objectively measured count of types of neighborhood "services," "convenience goods," "public open space," and "youth-related" destinations. On average, youth accrued 801 mean min/week screen time and had access to seven different types of neighborhood destinations. A larger number of different types of neighborhood "youth-related," "service," and "total" destinations were associated with less screen time (all p ≤ .05). A significant gender interaction was observed. Girls with access to ≥12 youth-related destinations had 109 fewer mean min/week screen time, compared with girls with 0 to 3 youth-related destinations. Providing alternatives to screen use by ensuring access to a variety of neighborhood places for structured and unstructured activities may be an important strategy for decreasing youth screen time.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-06-30
    Description: Associations between access to local destinations and children’s independent mobility (IM) were examined. In 2007, 10- to 12-year-olds ( n = 1,480) and their parents ( n = 1,314) completed a survey. Children marked on a map the destinations they walked or cycled to ( n = 1,132), and the availability of local destinations was assessed using Geographic Information Systems. More independently mobile children traveled to local destinations than other children. The odds of IM more than halved in both boys and girls whose parents reported living on a busy road (boys, OR = 0.48; girls, OR = 0.36) and in boys who lived near shopping centers (OR = 0.18) or community services (OR = 0.25). Conversely, the odds of IM more than doubled in girls living in neighborhoods with well-connected low-traffic streets (OR = 2.32) and increased in boys with access to local recreational (OR = 1.67) and retail (OR = 1.42) destinations. Creating safe and accessible places and routes may facilitate children’s IM, partly by shaping parent’s and children’s feelings of safety while enhancing their confidence in the child’s ability to use active modes without an adult.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: Both children and adults benefit from living in communities and neighborhoods that are rich in social capital. However, the research literature is relatively silent with respect to the influence that children may play as catalysts for the formation and maintenance of community or family stocks of social capital. This article investigates whether having dependent children living at home play a role in forging adult connections, community involvement, and social capital in a suburban context. The qualitative data were derived from 12 focus groups and the quantitative data from a survey of 339 residents in three Western Australian suburbs. Overall, the quantitative results found that social capital, neighborhood cohesion, and community participation were all significantly higher among respondents with dependent children living at home. The results have implications for urban design and community infrastructure, including the extent to which the built environment caters for children and fosters social connectedness among parents, families, and the broader community.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-12-14
    Description: Housing options, such as retirement villages, that promote and encourage healthy behaviors are needed to accommodate the growing older adult population. To examine how environmental perceptions relate to walking, residents of retirement villages in Perth, Australia, were sampled, and associations between a wide range of village and neighborhood environmental attributes and walking leisurely, briskly, and for transport were examined. Perceived village features associated with walking included aesthetics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72), personal safety (OR = 0.43), and services and facilities (OR = 0.80), whereas neighborhood attributes included fewer physical barriers (OR = 1.37) and proximate destinations (OR = 1.93). Findings suggest that locating retirement villages in neighborhoods with many local destinations may encourage more walking than providing many services and facilities within villages. Indeed, safe villages rich with amenities were shown to be related to less walking in residents. These findings have implications for the location, design, and layout of retirement villages.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-07-10
    Description: Few studies have specifically investigated fear of crime as a deterrent to walking. This study tested the hypothesis that fear would inhibit residents from walking in their local neighborhoods. Homeowners ( n = 1,044) in Perth, Western Australia, reported their fear of crime, neighborhood problems and walking, and objective environmental measures were generated for each participant’s neighborhood. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between fear and walking, with progressive adjustment for other correlates. Fear was associated with lower odds of transport walking (OR = 0.79, p = .034); however, car access was ubiquitous so fearful participants could avoid walking. A similar association between fear and recreational walking attenuated after controlling for other neighborhood factors. Findings suggest that the capacity for fear to deter recreational walkers is not fixed, and that a supportive environment can lessen its impact. Community initiatives that encourage social interaction between residents and improve neighborhood aesthetics may increase levels of recreational walking.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-25
    Description: The neighborhood influences on walking are well recognized, yet less is known about how the environment impacts sedentary behaviors. This study used a social-ecological model to examine the correlates of sitting time, independent of walking behavior. Objective built environment measures and self-reported community participation were examined for associations with sitting time for 1,179 residents in Perth, Western Australia. Neighborhood built environment and social factors were significantly associated with women’s sitting time only. In particular, the presence of community infrastructure was negatively associated with women’s weekday sitting (relative reduction = 0.951; p = .037), but statistical significance weakened after accounting for community participation (relative reduction = 0.951; p = .057). Community participation was independently associated with both women’s weekday and weekend sitting (both p 〈 .001). More walkable neighborhoods may help limit women’s sitting time by providing better access to community infrastructure, as local venues may afford additional opportunities for social interaction and participation.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-10
    Description: We investigated the influence of neighborhood built form on sense of community in Perth, Western Australia. It was hypothesized that sense of community would be stronger in individuals living in pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods. Multivariate linear regression models explored associations between walking and sense of community, with progressive adjustment for objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Sense of community was positively associated with walking for transport and positive perceptions of neighborhood quality, and negatively associated with residential density. The findings highlight the influence of local area perceptions on sense of community that appeared to be more important than objective environment characteristics. However, the latter may influence perceptions, and this requires investigation.
    Print ISSN: 0013-9165
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-390X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Published by Sage
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