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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-05-31
    Description: The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The World Ocean produces a large amount of natural aerosols that have all impact on the Earth's albedo and climate. Sea-salt is the major contributor to aerosol optical depth over the oceans. [Mahowald et al. 2006; Chin et al. 2002; Satheesh et al. 1999; Winter and Chylek, 1997] and therefore affects the radiative balance over the ocean through the direct [Haywood et al. 1999] and indirect aerosol effect [O'Dowd et al. 1999]. Aerosols over the oceans (produced marine and advected from land sources) are important for various atmospheric processes [Lewis and Schwartz, 2004] and remote sensing studies [Gordon, 1997].
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: To be published in Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): D06204, doi:10.1029/2008JD011257.
    Description: The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is ∼0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440–870 nm) is calculated to be ∼0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
    Description: The work of Tymon Zielinski was supported by Polish national grant AERONET59.
    Keywords: Aerosol optical depth ; Maritime aerosol ; Network
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Analysis of sun photometer measured and satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) data has shown that major aerosol pollution events with very high fine mode AOD (〉1.0 in mid-visible) in the China/Korea/Japan region are often observed to be associated with significant cloud cover. This makes remote sensing of these events difficult even for high temporal resolution sun photometer measurements. Possible physical mechanisms for these events that have high AOD include a combination of aerosol humidification, cloud processing, and meteorological co-variation with atmospheric stability and convergence. The new development of Aerosol Robotic network (AERONET) Version 3 Level 2 AOD with improved cloud screening algorithms now allow for unprecedented ability to monitor these extreme fine mode pollution events. Further, the Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm (SDA) applied to Level 1 data (L1; no cloud screening) provides an even more comprehensive assessment of fine mode AOD than L2 in current and previous data versions. Studying the 2012 winter-summer period, comparisons of AERONET L1 SDA daily average fine mode AOD data showed that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote sensing of AOD often did not retrieve and/or identify some of the highest fine mode AOD events in this region. Also, compared to models that include data assimilation of satellite retrieved AOD, the L1 SDA fine mode AOD was significantly higher in magnitude, particularly for the highest AOD events that were often associated with significant cloudiness.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN57373 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 123; 10; 5560-5587
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: Analysis of Sun photometer measured and satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) datahas shown that major aerosol pollution events with very highfine mode AOD (〉1.0 in midvisible) in theChina/Korea/Japan region are often observed to be associated with significant cloud cover. This makesremote sensing of these events difficult even for high temporal resolution Sun photometer measurements.Possible physical mechanisms for these events that have high AOD include a combination of aerosolhumidification, cloud processing, and meteorological covariation with atmospheric stability andconvergence. The new development of Aerosol Robotic Network Version 3 Level 2 AOD with improved cloudscreening algorithms now allow for unprecedented ability to monitor these extremefine mode pollutionevents. Further, the spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA) applied to Level 1 data (L1; no cloud screening)provides an even more comprehensive assessment offine mode AOD than L2 in current and previous dataversions. Studying the 2012 winter-summer period, comparisons of Aerosol Robotic Network L1 SDA dailyaveragefine mode AOD data showed that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite remotesensing of AOD often did not retrieve and/or identify some of the highestfine mode AOD events in thisregion. Also, compared to models that include data assimilation of satellite retrieved AOD, the L1 SDAfinemode AOD was significantly higher in magnitude, particularly for the highest AOD events that were oftenassociated with significant cloudiness.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN70341 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 123; 10; 5560-5587
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.5476.2011
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.7189.2012 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions; 12; 19163-19208
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops handheld sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: GSFC.JA.00172.2012 , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques; 4; 3; 583-597
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from approx.. 0.84 in July to approx. 0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom exponent (440-870 nm; r(exp 2) = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r(exp 2) = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN14590 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; 118; 12; 6414-6432
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We compare the aerosol optical depths (AOD) retrieved from backscatter measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite with coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Overpass coincidence criteria of +/- 2 h and within a 40 km radius are satisfied at least once at 149 globally distributed AERONET sites from 2006 to 2010. Most data pairs (〉80%) use AERONET measurements acquired +/- 30 min of the overpass. We examine the differences in AOD estimates between CALIOP and AERONET for various aerosol, environmental, and geographic conditions. Results show CALIOP AOD are lower than AERONET AOD especially at low optical depths as measured by AERONET (500 nm AOD〈0.1). Furthermore, the median relative AOD difference between the two measurements is 25% of the AERONET AOD for AOD〉0.1. Differences in AOD between CALIOP and AERONET are possibly due to cloud contamination, scene inhomogeneity, instrument view angle differences, CALIOP retrieval errors, and detection limits. Comparison of daytime to nighttime number of 5 km 60m (60m in the vertical) features detected by CALIOP show that there are 20% more aerosol features at night. We find that CALIPSO and AERONET do not agree on the cloudiness of scenes. Of the scenes that meet the above coincidence criteria, CALIPSO finds clouds in more than 45% of the coincident atmospheric columns AERONET classifies as clear.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: NF1676L-14895 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres ; 118; 4748-4766
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