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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : The Geological Society
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 9/M 00.0460
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Description / Table of Contents: The Physics of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions includes seven review papers that outline our current understanding of several aspects of the physical processes affecting magma during volcanic eruptions. An introductory chapter highlights research areas where our understanding is incomplete, or even completely lacking, and where work needs advancing if our knowledge of volcanic processes is to be substantially improved. The book covers topics on the physical properties of silicic magma, vesiculation processes, conduit flow and fragmentation, gas loss from magmas during eruption, models of volcanic eruption columns, tephra dispersal and pyroclastic density currents.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 186 S. , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 1862390207
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 145
    Classification: A.3.5.
    Note: J. S. Gilbert and R. S. J. Sparks: Future research directions on the physics of explosive volcanic eruptions / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:1-7, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.01 --- Donald B. Dingwell: Recent experimental progress in the physical description of silicic magma relevant to explosive volcanism / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:9-26, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.02 --- Oded Navon and Vladimir Lyakhovsky: Vesiculation processes in silicic magmas / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:27-50, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.03 --- H. M. Mader: Conduit flow and fragmentation / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:51-71, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.04 --- C. Jaupart: Gas loss from magmas through conduit walls during eruption / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:73-90, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.05 --- Andrew W. Woods: Observations and models of volcanic eruption columns / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:91-114, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.06 --- M. Bursik: Tephra dispersal / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:115-144, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.07 --- T. H. Druitt: Pyroclastic density currents / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 145:145-182, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.145.01.08
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Silver Spring, Md. : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Air Resources Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: MOP Per 29/I(142)
    In: NOAA technical memorandum
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 60 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: NOAA technical memorandum : ERL ARL 142
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: Volcanoes become active when fluids are in motion, and erupt when these fluids escape into the atmosphere. Volcanic fluids are a mixture of solid, liquid and gas. These mixtures result in a complex range of flow behaviour, especially during interaction with conduit geometry. These processes are not directly observable and must be inferred from interpretations of field observation and measurement. One of the outcomes of this complexity is the generation of pressure and force transients as high-density phases accelerate and decelerate during unsteady flow. These transients are one means of flexing the conduit wall, a process that manifests itself as ground motion and is detectable as volcano seismic signals. On eruption, volcanic fluids interact with the atmosphere and generate acoustic and thermal signals. In this Special Publication we present a series of papers based on field, numerical and experimental approaches that seek to establish links between geophysical signals and fluid motion in volcanic conduits.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 244 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862392625
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: This paper presents the first modern volcanological study of a subglacial-to-emergent rhyolite tuya, at SE Rauthufossafjoll, Torfajokull, Iceland. A flat-topped edifice with a volume of c. 1 km3 was emplaced in Upper Pleistocene time beneath a glacier 〉350m thick. Although it shares morphological characteristics with basaltic tuyas, the lithofacies indicate a very different eruption mechanism. Field observations suggest that the eruption began with vigorous phreatomagmatic explosions within a well-drained ice vault, building a pile of unbedded ash up to 300m thick. This was followed by a subaerial effusive phase, in which compound lava flows were emplaced within ice cauldrons. Small-volume effusive eruptions on the volcano flanks created several lava bodies, with a variety of features (columnar-jointed sides, subaerial tops, peperitic bases) that are used to reconstruct spatially-heterogeneous patterns of volcano-ice interaction. Volcaniclastic sediments exposed in a stream section provide evidence for channelised meltwater drainage and fluctuating depositional processes during the eruption. Models are developed for the evolution of SE Rauthufossafjoll, and the differences between subglacial rhyolitic and basaltic eruption mechanisms, which are principally caused by contrasting hydrological patterns, are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Keywords: holography ; interferometry ; nondestructive testing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Substrate guided wave (SGW) holograms are recorded and reconstructed using light waves guided through an optical substrate. The recording geometries for producing transmission and reflection SGW holograms are discussed. Practical guidelines are presented for recording and reconstructing interferograms suitable for nondestructive testing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The panoramic annular lens (PAL) consists of a single piece of glass, with spherical surfaces, that produces a flat annular image of the entire 360-deg surround of the optical axis of the lens. This paper describes the attributes of the PAL and shows that the lens maps elements from object to image space via a constant aspect ratio polar mapping. A panoramic video system (PVS) is described to illustrate how the characterization can be applied in experimental mechanics for cavity inspection and measurement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental mechanics 18 (1978), S. 382-388 
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper explores the potential of using image-plane holography as a tool in experimental mechanics to determine both ‘in-plane’ and ‘out-of-plane’ displacement components. Collimated-illumination and telecentric-imaging project displacement along common-sensitivity vectors over the full-field while white-light reconstruction helps to reduce speckle noise which allows high-density fringe gradients of good quality to be recorded. A holographic-image-plane multiplexing arrangement is developed to record different displacement components on a single hologram. Experiments are designed so that both reconstruction and optical filtering can be performed without a major modification of optical components. Displacements obtained from a centrally loaded circularly clamped plate are compared to their theoretical counterparts. Results show that image-plane techniques offer many distinct advantages over conventional methods for holographic analysis of displacement on diffuse surfaces.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A symmetrical double-beam illumination is used in conjunction with a fictitious fringe system to obtain a moiré pattern which represents the projection of the displacement vector into a single plane. The fictitious system of fringes is generated by a rotation of the photographic plate. This additional degree of freedom makes it possible to optically superimpose holograms, to apply spatial filtering techniques, and to control fringe localization. The method is applicable for displacement determination throughout the entire holographic range. A disk subjected to diametral compression is used to demonstrate that displacements and strains on the order of magnitude of those found in real engineering problems can be determined very accurately.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Holography is used to study thermally induced deformation in a rock specimen extracted from a cubical sample taken during a geological survey. Experiments are conducted over small temperature increments on the order of a few degrees Fahrenheit, to suppress extraneous variations in optical path which could otherwise be introduced by temperature gradients and convection currents in the air surrounding the specimen. The concept of an optical rosette is introduced to predict principal strains and their corresponding directions from holographically obtained data. Values measured for thermal coefficients of expansion fall within the range of those documented by other investigators using more conventional experimental methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental mechanics 21 (1981), S. 315-320 
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Multimode-fiber optics are used to holographically record surface deformation in remote areas of a structure Dispiacement patterns agree well with theory, indicating that the proposed technique is feasible. Inherent difficulties encountered with multimode fibers are discussed and guidlines are established for further studies. designed to improve holographic displacement recording using monodode fibers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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