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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A single-copy 13.7 kb human DNA region (L30E) located on Ch. 19 p13.3 contains an origin of DNA replication in myeloid HL-60 cells. The origin was localized, by means of quantitative PCR within approximately 3000 bp, in a highly transcribed region containing at least two closely spaced genes with the same polarity of transcription, one encoding lamin B2 and the other an unidentified protein. The origin region overlaps an undermethylated “CpG island” at the 5′-end of the second transcription unit. A binding site (CACGTG) for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA binding proteins such as USF/MLTF or MYC-MAX was located by DNase I footprinting analysis in the promoter of the second gene. DMSO differentiation of HL-60 cells, that completely shuts off replication, also drastically reduces the transcription of L30E region. On the other hand such treatment does not modify the methylation pattern of the CpG island and does not abolish the DNase I protection of the bHLH binding site.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) (transactivator of transcription (Tat)) protein is a pleiotropic factor that induces a broad range of biological effects in numerous cell types. At the HIV promoter, Tat is a powerful transactivator of gene expression, which acts by both inducing chromatin remodeling and by recruiting elongation-competent transcriptional complexes onto the viral LTR. Besides these transcriptional activities, Tat is released outside the cells and interacts with different cell membrane-associated receptors. Finally, extracellular Tat can be internalized by cells through an active endocytosis process. Here we discuss some of the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular and extracellular Tat function.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear matrix ; replication origin ; topoisomerase II-mediated DNA loop excision ; DNA loop anchorage sites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The recently developed procedure of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA loop excision has been used to analyze the topological organization of a human genome fragment containing the gene encoding lamin B2 and the ppv1 gene. A 3.5 kb long DNA loop anchorage/topoisomerase II cleavage region was found within the area under study. This region includes the end of the lamin B2 coding unit and an intergenic region where an origin of DNA replication was previously found. These observations further corroborate the hypothesis that DNA replication origins are located at or close to DNA loop anchorage regions. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:13-18, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Genetica 106 (1999), S. 125-130 
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: chromatin ; transcription ; HIV-1 ; Tat ; histone acetyltransferase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Upon infection of susceptible cells, the RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which can be subsequently integrated into the cellular genome. After integration, the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter is present in a nucleosome-bound conformation and is transcriptionally silent in the absence of stimulation. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression is concomitant with an acetylation-dependent rearrangement of the nucleosome positioned at the viral transcription start site. Thus, similar to most cellular genes, the transcriptional state of the integrated HIV-1 provirus is closely linked to histone acetylation. This enzymatic activity results from the function of histone-specific nuclear acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Efficient viral transcription is strongly dependent on the virally-encoded Tat protein. The mechanism by which Tat increases the rate of transcriptional initiation has been recently demonstrated and involves the interaction of Tat with the transcriptional coactivator p300 and the closely related CREB-binding protein (CBP), having histone acetyltransferase activity.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Genetica 94 (1994), S. 255-266 
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: DNA replication ; origin ; competitive polymerase chain reaction ; transcription ; lamin B2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Attempts at identifying DNA replication origins in human cells have been performed with a variety of molecular genetic and biochemical approaches, with often controversial results. The combination of bromodeoxyuridine labelling, immunopurification of newly synthesized labelled DNA, measurement of the relative abundance of markers in this DNA by quantitative competitive PCR, has allowed the identification within 450 bp of the start-site of DNA replication located at the human lamin B2 gene. The origin is located near the non-transcribed spacer between two highly transcribed genes and shows evidence of a number of specific protein-DNA interactions, the most prominent of which disappears when the cells are differentiated into a non-proliferating state.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A single-biomolecule optical toggle switch is demonstrated based on a mutated green fluorescent protein (GFP). We have exploited molecular biology techniques to tailor the GFP molecular structure and photophysical properties and to give it optically controlled bistability between two distinct states. We present optical control of the fluorescence dynamics with two laser beams at 476 and 350 nm down to the ultimate limit of single molecules. These results indicate that GFP-class fluorophores are promising candidates for the realization of biomolecular devices such as volumetric optical memories and optical switches. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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