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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of chemical & engineering data 24 (1979), S. 157-158 
    ISSN: 1520-5134
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Serious difficulties are associated with the measurement of the compressive modulus of fibres owing to their tendency to buckle during loading. A novel technique is described, based on the theory of two-component materials for determining both the tensile and compressive moduli of reinforcing fibres in composites. It was found, particularly with Kevlar 49, that the two moduli are significantly different.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Sabzkooh in Ardal and Gandoman region in Charmahal province with annual production of 1300 metric tons of rainbow trout, is one of the most important rivers in the province. The effects of fish farms effluent on the river water quality and the possibilities to develop or limit the existing ones were studied. Flora and fauna of the river including Phyto and zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled and studied. Moreover some key physico-chemical water quality parameters, concentrations of stable pollutants (heavy metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and agricultural poisons (herbicides or pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate) and Coliform contamination were also measured. All phytoplankton genus were of tow taxa, Cianophyta and Chrysophyta and zooplankton fauna belonged to Rotatoria, Protozoa and meroplanktonic chirinomids and nematodes. Four fish species from 3 families were identified of which rainbow trout had the highest relative frequency (94.6%).All the measured heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and the agricultural poisons concentrations such as DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate were lower than the hazardous level suggested for the surface waters. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates populations study, stations at downstream (no. 6 and 7) which received the Chartakhteh and Rudarud farms effluent had least EPT richness and the hilsenhof family level biotic index at this locations was greater than 5.25, classifying them as having organic pollution. Even though measured key physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients (N and P compounds and BOD5) in the receiving stations and effluent water never exceed the maximum permitted range but in downstream stations these factors were very close to the range. One way analyze of variance (P 95%) for TN, TP, No_2, NH_4, BOD_5, pH, PO_4 and Ec revealed no significant differences between stations before and just after receiving the effluents, however these parameters in the effluents themselves significantly differ from upstream stations 1,2 and 3 proving relatively lower organic pollution and the potential for constructing new farms or expanding the existed ones in upstream region from Chartagh to Dehnoo. At downstream from Dehnoo to Rudarud and lower parts, dense trout farm effluents in addition with point and non point pollution (municipal, agricultural and other coming run off from the catchments area) had remarkable effects on the river water quality and as a result no farm construction or expansion is recommended. To avoid or reduce the existing farms effects on the river system there should be certainly some remediation actions carried out. Constructing sedimentation ponds before releasing the effluents, obeying the rule of water extracting, preventing fish escape, increasing feeding efficiency and controlling the lateral inlets from catchments area which are potentially pollutant, should be considered to improve the situation and prevent further environmental problems caused by fish farms effluent in these area.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: To reveal the fisheries productivity and to get the maximum possible exploitations of the running water resources, existing potentials for aquaculture in Shit and Kordabad rivers in Tarom of Zanjan province were surveyed in a one year round study. In this way 4 and 3 sampling site were respectively selected in Shit and Kordabad rivers and benthic macroinvertebrates and water samples were collected and analyzed at least two times a season and fish fauna were also sampled and studied only two times during the period. All the measured water quality characteristics(such as O_2, water temperature, pH, nutrients, NH_3, BOD_5 and . . . ) were within the normal range suggested for the cold water fish culture. In both rivers no significant differences (p≤95%) were detected for physicochemical parameters within the study sites except for electrical conductivity and total hardness which differed in the firs and last station. Depletion of Agricultural run off and residual from the adjacent farmlands and municipal drainages into the water body of the rivers, were certainly effective in these changes However none of water quality parameters exceed the maximum permitted level for aquaculture. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates study 38 family of 12 taxa and 26 family of the 11 taxa were identified in Shit and Kordabad rivers respectively, most of them belonged to the aquatic insect larvae of the sensitive groups. Community structure indices and Hilsenhof family level biotic index proved a "very good" to "good" water quality criteria for the study sites in both rivers .One fish species in Shit and five species (4 of them were endemic) were identified in Kordabad river. Despite acceptable water quality in Shit river, some inhibiting factors such as adjacent farmlands and dense agricultural land use, high slope of river valley in most region which cause rare suitable lands for locating aquaculture sites, very limited access to road and electricity supply and lack of acceptability to manipulate or divert river water for fish farms, by the local people, are the major constrains for constructing trout farms in Shit river. However constructing a 15 mt capacity rainbow trout farm is possible at first 2 kilometers of the upstream where the water quality and quantity are relatively better and there are some lands with low slope and access to road and electricity supply. Kordabad river has a similar criteria and water quality and quantity at upstream is desirable for rainbow trout culture. The first 2 kilometer of this river is capable of constructing trout farms in some non cultivated lands. Moreover the Kordabad natural dam reservoir is available to conduct its water for further demands. In addition a total of 75mt rainbow trout production in the form of 2 or 3 separate site is possible in this river. Even though the local climate particularly in Kordabad river is acceptable for carp fishes, however land limitations, soil texture and the high volume of water demands, make warm water fishes commercial production impossible.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In 1999 Mnemiopsis leidyi was introduced to the Caspian Sea from the Black Sea with ballast waters from the ships. The comprehensive study on probability of controlling Caspian Sea invasive Ctenophora planned after a remarkable of decreeing in Kilka fish catches stocks and fisheris community problems. This study focus on reproduction experiments of Beroe ovata as the best candidate for control of Mnemiopsis population size in the Caspian Sea that was performed in Turkey and Iran during 2002-2003. At 2002, 87 specimens of B. ovata, 10-50 mm transferred to Caspian sea ecology research center from Marmareh sea where acclimated with Caspian sea water gradually. At 2003, experiments were performed near to Black sea (at Sinop) with freshly collected Beroe ovata, 40-65 mm size in three salinity level treatment, the Black sea water 18 , Mixed water 15 and Caspian water 12 . 130 individuals of Beroe ovata were brought from Sinop (Turkey) to Iran during 2003. A number of Beroe specimens were sent to Guilan province for reproduction studies and another part were sent to Mazandaran province for both reproduction and mesocosem studies. For control we had 1 Beroe, length 30 mm in the Black Sea water that was alive during of study in Iran. The Jars were examined each day for ova and larvae and they were collected and put into glass container of Caspian water for hatching and developing survey, some of them were left without any handling for larvae developing. Also in another experiment the eggs collected from jars were placed in the same three treatments for studying of growth and survival. The results were unsuccessful on propagation experiments at 2002 since the spawning and hatching rates were very low (20 ova) and, none of the larvae developed into adults in Caspian Sea water. The spawning was more in Marmareh sea water with 138 ova where only 7 larvae was hatched. Results showed that Beroe specimens is able to survive and reproduce in Caspian water but was not as well as Black Sea also the Beroe larvae growth rate is low in the Caspian Sea water. Maximum fecundity of Beroe individual was 2212 and 235 ovae in Caspian Sea water in site Sinop and Iran respectively. Results showed 34-100% eggs in Caspian Sea water were destroyed and did not develop. In Iran we obtained only one larvae with 5 mm length, other larvae were at different stages of development but most of them were 1.2 2 mm. The results of mesocosm survey showed most of ova and larvae have been obtained from the tanks where individuals B. ovata were with Mnemiopsis. Fecundity of Beroe in the control with Black Sea water were between 17 to 1879 with average of 828 ± 112 ova. The poor results of B. ovata reproduction obtained in this survey in Caspian Sea may be due to transportation and acclimation stress and low salinity of Caspian Sea water.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: This project has been started as monitoring study since 2001 that in first phase has lasted for two years and because of its importance, it was decided that this study should be continued for two other years. In the early 1980s, an alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi already known as a gelatinous zooplankton was transported (likely via ballast waters) to the Black Sea from its native waters of the western Atlantic. The possibility of Mnemiopsis leidyi introduction into other sensitive, neighboring ecosystems, notably the Caspian Sea, had been mentioned during the GESAMP meeting in 1994. And, as expected, this ctenophore was reported to be present in the Caspian Sea by November 1999. In this report, spatial and temporal distribution of M. leidyi had been investigated in southern Caspian Sea (Iranian waters) in 6 transects consisted of Lisar, Anzali, Sefidroud, Nowshar, Babolsar and Amirabad at 24 stations during 2003 and 2004. As a whole, 818 samples had been analyzed included 236, 302, 136 and 144 belong to ctenophore, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos. Meantime 811 physicochemical parameters had been measured. Water temperature varied between 7.8 to 29.3 co. Transparencies also fluctuated from 0.20 to 10.5 m. Salinity in different regions was from 7.80 to 13.90 ppt and the average was 12.09 ppt. pH was between 7.2- 8.6. Demand oxygen (O2) has been measured very high in water surface (12.89 µg.l) and it decreased at minimum level in deep down to 4 µg.l. Nutrients measurements such as NO_2, NO_3 and NH_4 were 0.10-15.17 , 3.80- 133.40 and 0.36- 86.40 µg.l, respectively. Total nitrate and phosphate were measured between 337.00- 1635.00 and 14.90-103.40 µg.l, respectively. Comparison of M. leidyi distribution in the southern Caspian Sea shown that maximum abundance recorded in warm summer months (e.g. August) with 11627 ind.m^2 and its biomass maximum was in autumn months (September and October) about 446.11 gr.m^2 . Mean abundance and biomass of M. leidyi were 2504 ind.m^2 and 142.42 gr.m^2, respectively. Maximum size of the ctenophore recorded as 70 mm while the less than 10 mm length frequency consisted 92.2 per cent of total population. Spatial distribution of M. leidyi in different regions shown that Sefidroud not only had the maximum Mnemiopsis abundance but also consisted higher biomass in the southern Caspian Sea in 2003-4. At present study, 142 phytoplankton species were identified which belongs to Chrysophyta (67, 48), Chlorophyta (23, 16%), Cyanophyta (22, 15%), Pyrhophyta (21, 15%) and Euglenophyta (9, 6%). Mean phytoplankton abundance and biomass were 11137032 ind. m^3 and 40.26 mg. m^3, respectively. Chrysophyta (diatoms) consisted 42 and 47% of whole phytoplankton abundance and biomass. In the other hand, this group included 50 % of phytoplankton population. In zooplankton study, there were identified 21 species in which 10 species were only meroplankton (zoobenthic) and 11 species was holoplankton. These species belongs to Copepoda (4, 37%), Rotatoria (4, 36%), Cilliophora (2, 18%) and Cladocera (1, 9%). Monthly zooplankton abundance and biomass data shown that its population completely effected by Copepoda. Among copepoda, Acartia clausi was the main species duri ng 2003-4. As a whole, maximum abundance recorded in spring (March) and autumn (September) about 11497 and 11321 ind. m^3 while its maximum biomass occurred in summer (August) with 48.95 mg. m^3. Zooplankton minimum abundance and biomass were in wintertime about 3894 ind. m^3 and 10.16 mg. m^3. Benthic fauna in recent study consisted 27 species included Gammaride (8, 29%), Cumacea (7, 26%), Polychaeta (4, 15%), Bivalvia (3, 11%) and Oligochaeta, Balanidae and Xantidae each one (4%) species. Mean benthic abundance and biomass were 1215 ind. m^ 2 and 20.09 g. m^2, respectively. Polychaeta and Oligochaeta were established maximum frequency about 49 and 34% of total fauna while Bivalvia consisted 82.8% biomass overall.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-19
    Description: In order to create a reliable ecological database for Guilans running waters(north Iran near the Caspian sea), at the first step 3 important rivers containing Hevigh, Karkanrud and Shafarud, were selected and limnological survey, during autumn 1380 and summer1381 were seasonally carried out for them. Results showed that the key physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved O2, BOD5, pH, Phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, ammonium and in all of the three rivers water were in their normal range suggesting good water quality. Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta were respectively the most prevalent phytoplankton taxa and Zooplankton fauna of the rivers were fixed and sessile species belong to Protozoa and Rotatoria. 42 benthic macroinvertebrates taxa(Hevigh:36,Karkanrud:22 and Shafarud:30) were identified in these 3 rivers which individuals belong to order Diptera compromise the most divers and frequent one. Regarding macroinvertebrates diversity and indicator groups, it seems that Hevigh river has relatively better water quality than the two other. 23 fish species belong to 9 family,7 order and 2 class , were identified in these rivers during the study period which cyprinid were the most diverse and prevalent of them. Albornoides sp., Capoeta capoeta and Neogobios sp. were the most widespread and frequent species of the identified fishes in all of them. Bacteriological survey including Coliform and E.Colie count showed that the lower parts of the rivers near the estuaries were more infected and the bottom sediments had more bacterial count during the all sampling period. However the total coliform count never exceed of 200 colonies per 100cc , suggesting no risk for direct contact (swimming and washing), according to EPA standards. Chromium, Cadmium and Mercury had very low concentrations in the rivers water but Cupper had relatively high concentration (up to 1.788 mg/l in Hevigh river) amongst the studied heavy metals. The maximum and minimum concentrations of detergent materials or surfactant (LAS) were respectively observed in Shafarud (0.047 mg/l) and Hevigh (0.014 mg/l). According to the results of the study even though all the three rivers water had an overall reasonable quality, but some signs of destructions and degradations such as sedimentation, relatively increase of nutrient, increased concentrations of some pollutants, which all results in the low diversity of macroinvertebrates and prevents migration of anadromous fishes, calls for a continuing monitoring program and precise control for these regions.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Limnology ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: Kutum fish (Rutilus kutum) is an anadromous cyprinid species that spawns in adjusted rivers to the Caspian Sea. Many million fingerlings were artificially produced and annually released in these rivers specifically in Sefidrud River by Iranian Fisheries Organization. In this study were estimated the staying period of Kutum fingerlings in Sefidrud River and its diet and growth. A small piece of the caudal fin was cut as a tagging method. About 50000 and 5200 individuals were marked during July and September 2013, respectively. The marked fish had an average total length 53.2±5.6 mm and body weight 1.11±0.26 g and were released in river around two kilometers of the estuary. The sampling of fishes had been earlier started from Feb. 2012 and continued until Feb. 2013 at five stations. Four stations were along river from three Kilometer of estuary to estuary and one station was in right side of estuary in the sea coast. The results showed that marked samples after releasing time were distributed in all studied area from 3 kilometers of estuary to estuary but they migrate mainly toward Caspian Sea in a short time. However the marked samples were observed in estuary and the sea coast after 6 and 24 hours of their releasing time, respectively, Kutum fingerlings remained in Sefidrud river ecosystem in a longer time, at least until end of our sampling period i.e. 105 days. The coefficient of vacuity index of the natural feeding study was 0.0, 49.0 and 30.6 % for phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, respectively. The average of GastroSomatic index, intensity of fullness and condition factor were calculated 6.30±3.25, 174.6±153.2 and 0.92±0.09, respectively. A temporal and spatial variation on main food items were observed in gut content of fish fingerlings from different locations and seasons. Gut contents were generally included 59 genera of phytoplankton, 15 groups of zooplankton and 10 groups of benthos. Nitzschia, Navicula and Synedra were dominated among phytoplankton genera with 45.83, 18.02 and 15.99 %, respectively. Among zooplankton groups; the Rotaria, Moeina and Difflugia were dominated with 22.30, 20.86 and 15.83%, respectively. Chironomidae and Gammaridae were the main food items among fed benthic animals with 83.67 and 11.15%, respectively. Furthermore 48 phytoplankton genera, 32 zooplankton genera and 6 benthic families were identified in ecosystem of Sefidrud river. Bacillariophyta phylum (with 23 genus), Rotatoria (with17 genus) and Chironomidae family were dominated in each mentioned groups, respectively. It is concluded that the Kutum fingerlings stay in Sefidrud River for a long time, although most of them migrate to Caspian Sea during first month after releasing. However dietary indices were normal in studied samples, the condition factor index seems to be low.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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