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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Algebra universalis 32 (1994), S. 341-367 
    ISSN: 1420-8911
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-4766
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have explored the interaction of self-assembled monolayers of 1,1′-biphenyl-4-thiol (BPT) with low energy electrons. X-ray photoelectron, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy showed that BPT forms well-ordered monolayers with the phenyl rings tilted ∼15° from the surface normal. The films were exposed to 50 eV electrons and changes were monitored in situ. Even after high (∼10 mC/cm2) exposures, the molecules maintain their preferred orientation and remain bonded on the gold substrate. An increased etching resistance and changes in the infrared spectra imply a crosslinking between neighboring phenyl groups, which suggests that BPT can be utilized as an ultrathin negative resist. This is demonstrated by the generation of patterns in the underlying gold. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1297
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Keywords: acrylates ; DMA ; DSC ; epoxides ; radiation curing ; structure-property relationship ; TG ; thermal analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Thermo-oxidative and thermo-mechanical stabilities of radiation-cured acrylates and epoxides were examined by TG, DMA and DSC. The polymeric trifunctional acrylates PETIA, TMPTA and THEIC displayed the highest temperatures of onset of degradation. The high crosslinking density of the films resulted in an almost temperature-independent complex E-modulus, as measured by DMA. With increasing degree of ethoxylation or propoxylation of the monomers, decreases in thermal stability and strength were found. For difunctional polymeric acrylates and epoxides, the glass transition temperature was measured. The average degree of curing of UV-cured epoxy films can be determined from the temperature of the maximum in the loss modulus (E″max.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: dissolved humic substances ; FTIR spectroscopy ; land use history ; peat ; synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy ; UV/VIS spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The elemental composition and spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids isolated from different sampling media (topsoil, ground and surface water) of a natural fen area (high portion of organic soils) were examined to reveal the effects of land use history. These effects need to be known if dissolved humic substances are to be a major factor in identifying the impact of present and future changes in land use. Dissolved fulvic acids (topsoil, groundwater) from highly degraded peatlands (due to a long-term agricultural use) exhibit lower C/N ratios, higher absorption in the UV spectra, and higher absorption at 1,620 cm−1 in the FTIR spectra compared with fulvic acids from relatively intact peatlands. These properties illustrate that long-term agricultural use with high inputs results in increased aromatic structures and a further humification of dissolved fulvic acids due to very strong peat decomposition compared with relatively intact peatlands. Synchronous fluorescence spectra also indicate the higher level of aromatic structures within fulvic acids isolated from sites with long-term agricultural use (high peat decomposition) compared with a land use history resulting in a lower peat decomposition. The different sources of fulvic acids in surface water (precipitation, runoff, interflow, groundwater) are the main reason for these effects not being detected in fulvic acids isolated from surface water. Short-term changes in land use characterized by a transition from crop farming to an unimproved grassland were found not to affect the spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids. A humification index deduced from the synchronous fluorescence spectra is proposed. We have strong evidence that dissolved humic substances indicate changes in the environmental conditions (both anthropogenic and natural) of wetlands with a high proportion of organic soils.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: dissolved humic substances ; FTIR spectroscopy ; land use history ; peat ; synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy ; UV/VIS spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The elemental composition and spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids isolated from different sampling media (topsoil, ground and surface water) of a natural fen area (high portion of organic soils) were examined to reveal the effects of land use history. These effects need to be known if dissolved humic substances are to be a major factor in identifying the impact of present and future changes in land use. Dissolved fulvic acids (topsoil, groundwater) from highly degraded peatlands (due to a long-term agricultural use) exhibit lower C/N ratios, higher absorption in the UV spectra, and higher absorption at 1,620 cm−1 in the FTIR spectra compared with fulvic acids from relatively intact peatlands. These properties illustrate that long-term agricultural use with high inputs results in increased aromatic structures and a further humification of dissolved fulvic acids due to very strong peat decomposition compared with relatively intact peatlands. Synchronous fluorescence spectra also indicate the higher level of aromatic structures within fulvic acids isolated from sites with long-term agricultural use (high peat decomposition) compared with a land use history resulting in a lower peat decomposition. The different sources of fulvic acids in surface water (precipitation, runoff, interflow, groundwater) are the main reason for these effects not being detected in fulvic acids isolated from surface water. Short-term changes in land use characterized by a transition from crop farming to an unimproved grassland were found not to affect the spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids. A humification index deduced from the synchronous fluorescence spectra is proposed. We have strong evidence that dissolved humic substances indicate changes in the environmental conditions (both anthropogenic and natural) of wetlands with a high proportion of organic soils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 228 (1977), S. 101-111 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 79 (2001), S. 3323-3325 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Self-assembled monolayers of ω-(4′-methyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-dodecyl thiol [CH3–C6H4-C6H4–(CH2)12–SH,BP12] on gold were patterned via exposure to 300 eV electrons. Subsequent copper deposition in an electrochemical cell revealed behavior opposite to that of electron beam patterned monolayers of alkanethiols. Whereas alkanethiols act as a positive resist and lead to copper deposition only on irradiated parts, the biphenyl based thiol acts as a negative resist. At the irradiated areas the layer exhibits blocking behavior and copper deposition is observed only on the nonirradiated parts. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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