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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The response characteristic of visual interneurons of the brain was studied in Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria. Alternating light and dark, moving dots, bars and striped patterns were used for stimulation (Fig. 3). These stimuli were recorded with a video system and replayed on TV-screens during the experiment to allow fast testing of the sensitivity of a neuron to different stimuli during the limited time of intracellular recording. Data were stored and analysed by computer. The neurons were anatomically identified by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. Neutral (“non-visual”) and several classes of spiking interneurons of the medulla and lobula sensitive to visual stimuli could be distinguished by anatomical and physiological characteristics (Figs. 1, 2). The visual cells respond either to light-on, or to light-off, flicker, moving small dots, bars or striped patterns (Figs. 2–6). One class is directionally sensitive to pattern movement either from back to front or into the reverse direction (horizontal cells; Figs. 7, 8) and may therefore be involved in optomotor flight control.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 225 (1970), S. 1263-1264 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A similar forward movement of the antennae can be seen in locusts during tethered flight in the air current from a wind tunnel. It is of interest whether this antennal movement is induced passively by aerodynamic forces or actively by the animal itself, and whether this movement is connected with ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 249 (1974), S. 584-585 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Experiments were carried out on the dragonfly Orthetrum cancellatum L. (Anisoptera, Odonata) 2-6 d after the imaginal moulting of larvae, which had been collected from various ponds in the area. For the flight experiments the foremost dorsal part of the mesepisterna of the animal was firmly fixed ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0022-1910
    Keywords: Locusta migratoria ; flight balance ; postlarval development ; wing-stroke angle ; wing-stroke frequency ; wing-stroke plane angle
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0022-1910
    Keywords: Locusta migratoria ; body weight ; flight balance ; flight speed ; lift ; postlarval development
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Insect Physiology 37 (1991), S. 551-562 
    ISSN: 0022-1910
    Keywords: Antenna ; antennal muscles ; locust ; motoneurones
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Key words Central nervous system ; Insect ; Functional differentiation ; Gene expression ; Differential display polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Within the optic lobes, the mushroom bodies or other parts of the insect brain, information is processed in an area-specific manner. To study the molecular basis of the abilities of the respective areas, the central nervous system of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria was dissected into different parts, the optic lobes, the “midbrain”, and the thoracic ganglia. Using a simple electrophoretic approach we were able to show area-specific expression of proteins exclusively present in the optic lobes. To study brain area-specific gene expression in more detail, we adapted the differential display polymerase chain reaction to the specific needs of this project. A number of differentially expressed amplicons were identified. The majority of them could be reamplified and their differential expression verified by northern blot analysis. To demonstrate the efficiency of the approach two amplicons with complementary expression patterns were further analysed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Key words Electrophysiology ; Brain ; Insect ; Histamine ; GABA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from 116 freshly dissociated neuronal somata from the optic lobe of adult locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). Prerequisites were a papain treatment and the directed transfer of somata to the recording chamber by dabbing. Of the recorded somata, 65 were from lamina and 51 from other optic lobe neurons. All somata supported voltage-activated outward currents and some (24% of optic lobe, 3% of lamina neurons) also fast inward currents. Most lamina neurons supported an outward current that activated (V 1/2=−8.5 mV) and inactivated rapidly and a sustained outward current. Some lamina and most optic lobe neurons expressed only a sustained outward current (V 1/2=−9.4 mV). GABA and histamine elicited inward currents at negative holding potentials. Most optic lobe (95%) but only 18% of lamina neurons showed a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) current, whereas a similar percentage of optic lobe (50%) and lamina neurons (67%) expressed a histamine current. Both currents reversed near the chloride equilibrium potential, were reversibly reduced by picrotoxin, and did not show rundown. Thus, they likely represent chloride currents mediated by ionotropic receptors. Our data indicate that the lamina neurons recorded mainly represent monopolar cells postsynaptic to histaminergic photoreceptors. The optic lobe neurons, on which GABA and histamine apparently act as inhibitory neurotransmitters, are more heterogeneous.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Cobalt staining ; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; Immunohistochemistry ; Insect ; Neuromodulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The two Protocerebral-Medulla 4 neurons (PM4a and b) in the locust brain have adjacent cell bodies in the medial deutocerebrum. They project through the posterior protocerebrum, forming limited arborisations en route, and enter the lobula and medulla of the ipsilateral optic lobe, where they form extensive, overlapping arborisations. The PM4a and b neurons are octopamine immunoreactive. Their octopamine content (approximately 25 pg per cell) is confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; each cell contains approximately 25 pg p-octopamine. Simultaneous intracellular recording from exposed PM4a and b cell bodies reveals that the two cells are physiologically indistinguishable. They receive multimodal sensory inputs. Tactile/mechanosensory stimuli to much of the animal's body and head, acoustic stimuli, and simple visual stimuli all give rise to e.p.s.p.s and action potentials in the PM4 cell body. Simultaneous recording from the cell body in the deutocerebrum and the axon in the lobula demonstrates that action potentials are predominantly initiated in the deutocerebrum and propagate centrifugally, towards the optic lobe. Occasionally, bright light flashes will initiate an action potential in the axon in the optic stalk, which probably propagates bidirectionally: centripetally to the cell body, and centrifugally into the optic lobe. The extensive arborisations in the lobula and medulla are therefore likely to be sites of octopamine release. Because PM4 neurons are octopaminergic, project to the optic lobe, and receive modalities of sensory input known to dishabituate the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD) visual interneuron, it is proposed that PM4 neurons are neuromodulatory — mediating dishabituation or arousal of the visual system.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary High speed cine film ofLocusta migratoria swarms was analysed. The following variables were studied and compared where possible with laboratory data: 1. Wing-beat frequencies of locusts of Australian and New Guinea swarms (mean 22.9 Hz) were higher than laboratory figures (19.8 Hz; Fig. 1). 2. Mean flight speed was 4.6 m/s, which was higher than laboratory figures (3.3 m/s; Fig. 2). 3. Mean body angle to horizontal was 7.4°, and to flight path (in the vertical plane) was 5.2°. Flight speed was found to be correlated with wing-beat frequency with a similar regression line to that found in laboratory work (Fig. 4). Ascent angle was positively correlated with the body angle to horizontal, but not correlated with body angle to flight path (Figs. 3, 5, 6).
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