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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 362 (1993), S. 119-120 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR — Breed and Julian1 argue that data they obtained from controlled agonistic interactions of worker honey-bees "... suggest a system of ordering of priority of cues by the bees. . ." in the context of nestmate discrimination. This interpretation builds on the "hierarchy of importance of ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 331 (1988), S. 668-668 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] BOOKS about honey bees are like editions of encyclopaedias. Of both we ask what is new, is the material more readable than in other editions, is the emphasis on a particular branch of knowledge, and at what level is the material presented? In reviewing The Biology of the Honey Bee, I will deal with ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 302 (1983), S. 147-148 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Queen honey bees mate with a number of different drones before they lay their first eggs11. The sperm, to some extent, mix in the spermatheca and the hive contains several distinct patrilineal worker groups of full sisters while the workers are matrilineal half sisters across groups12'13. In ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 336 (1988), S. 275-275 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Honey Bee. By James L. Gould and Carol Grant Gould. W. H. Freeman: 1988. Pp. 239. £14.95, $32.95. HONEY bees are the sapiens of inverte-brate evolution, or so we are led to believe by James and Carol Gould. Some myrmecologists may not agree with them; but, whatever your persuasion, ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: Evolutionarily stable strategy ; risk-spreading ; dispersal behavior ; flight muscle histolysis ; waterstrider
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Evolutionary stable dispersal and wing muscle histolysis strategies are studied in the waterstriderGerris thoracicus. These strategies relate to spreading reproductive risk. Overwintering individuals have the choice of dispersing to either a brackish sea bay or a rock pool habitat. The former is reproductively more favorable than the latter during warm dry years and less favorable during cool wet years. After spring migration, individuals may histolyse their flight muscles and lay all their eggs in one pool or they may retain their flight ability and lay fewer eggs in total but spread them in several pools. We use a simple two-habitat model to examine the question of habitat dispersal. Our results indicate that, although the value of the evolutionary stable dispersal depends on the degree of variability in the environment and on the probability of local extinctions in either habitat, the population always disperses to both habitats as a consequence of density dependent growth. We use a more detailed multiple-rockpool habitat model to examine the question of wing muscle histolysis as a response to density dependence. Our results indicate that a wing muscle histolysis response to population density is an evolutionarily stable strategy when compared with the two alternatives of females always histolysing or never histolysing their flight muscles. The application of evolutionarily stable theory to stochastic problems presents a number of difficulties. We discuss these difficulties in the context of computing evolutionarily stable strategies for the problems at hand.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: genetic models ; inbreeding depression ; mating cost ; Hymenoptera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Existing genetic models of the evolution of sibmating behaviour in diploids incorporate inbreeding depression in terms of reduced fecundity of consanguineous mating pairs rather than reduced survival or fecundity of the progeny of such matings. Here we derive a model to correct this deficiency and extend the model to haplodiploids where differential effects of inbreeding in males and females is a crucial consideration. Our analyses indicate that sibmating can readily evolve in both diploids and haplodiploids in which male mating costs and inbreeding depression are reasonably low, provided there is some mechanism to permit sibmating such as siblings being reared in nests or other forms of aggregation. Our analyses also indicate that once sibmating invades, it typically will go to fixation, although sib-/randommating polymorphisms can persist in both diploids and haplodiploids if male mating costs are close to zero and inbreeding depression reduces survival by around one-third. The conditions favouring sibmating are slightly more restrictive in haplodiploids than in diploids. In light of this we may ask why we see intense sibmating in many haplodiploids such as parasitic wasps, fig wasps, ants, bark beetles and mites, and only rarely in diploid animals. The common factor could be certain kinds of aggregation behaviour that are a prerequisite for sibmating in the absence of kin recognition. Another possibility is that inbreeding depression is likely to be more severe in diploids than in haplodiploids because deleterious recessives are purged from haplodiploid populations when expressed by haploid males. Thus, lower levels of inbreeding depression might be one important reason why sibmating appears to arise more frequently in haplodiploids than diploids. Phylogenetic analysis of groups, such as bark beetles and mites, exhibiting both diploid and haplodiploid populations may be useful in elucidating the relative importance of gregarious behaviour and haplodiploidy in facilitating sibmating systems.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: evolutionary dynamics ; populations ; interactive resources
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary I begin by reviewing the derivation of continuous logistic growth and dynamic consumer—resource interaction equations in terms of specific resource extraction and biomass conversion functions that are considered to hold at a population level. Evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) methods are discussed for analysing populations modelled by these equations. The question of selection trade-offs is then considered, particularly in the context of populations being efficient at extracting resources versus converting resources to their own biomass. Questions relating to single populations with high versus low conversion rates and interacting populations with high versus low self-interference rates are also considered. The models discussed here demonstrate conclusively that self-interference is an essential part of any consumption process: without it population growth and interaction processes do not make any sense. The analysis clarifies concepts relating to the somewhat discredited notion ofr—K selection.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: sibmating ; inbreeding depression ; haplodiploid ; inclusive fitness ; one-locus genetic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We construct an inclusive fitness model of the relative selective advantage of sibmating and outbreeding behaviour, under the assumption that inbred offspring pay a fitness penalty. We are particularly interested in the question of whether such inbreeding depression is enough to generate a stable phenotypic polymorphism, with both kinds of breeding observed. The model predicts that, under diploidy, such a polymorphism is never found, but under haplodiploidy, it exists for a narrow range of parameter values. The inclusive fitness argument is technically interesting because care must be taken with reproductive values. We also present a corrected version of a one-locus genetic model for sibmating and find that the inclusive fitness and genetic models give identical results when selection is weak.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The work reported here is motivated by questions relating to the perception of olfactory cues in the discrimination of nestmates and kin in the honeybeeApis mellifera. Two sets of experiments are discussed. The first deals with the perception of individual compounds in mixtures made up from various pairs of volatile (citral, geraniol, linalool, and limonene) and nonvolatile (un- and dodecanoic acids) compounds. The second deals with the ability of worker honeybees to discriminate between mixtures made up from the same two compounds (un- and dodecanoic acids; tri- and pentacosane) combined in different proportions. All experiments employ differential conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex as an assay of the ability of workers to discriminate between two odors. Results show that workers can relate mixtures to their component parts, and that workers can discriminate between mixtures of two very similar compounds as long as the proportions are relatively dissimilar.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Key words Olfaction  ;  Odor discrimination  ; Mixture perception
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cockroach is known to possess several morphologically distinct types of sensilla on its antenna, each of which contain a couple or a few receptor cells that respond to an array of compounds. We recorded the response of cells exclusively from one type of sensillum to evaluate the variation in the response of the cells in these sensilla to three closely related alcohols and their binary mixtures. Our results indicate that cells within the class of those responsive to aliphatic alcohols are otherwise variable in their response to particular aliphatic alcohols and not easily classifiable into subclasses. They also indicate that patterns of responses among cells are not robust with respect to concentration. Finally, a considerable level of inhibition is indicated in the response of the receptor cells to binary mixtures compared with the response to pure odorants. The data suggest that discrimination of alcohols (and other odorants of general but not special significance) by the cockroach cannot be understood simply in terms of labeled lines or linear filters.
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