ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Proceed order?

Export
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of metamorphic geology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1525-1314
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Mineral stable isotopic and trace element studies in 2 GPa banded eclogites of the Tauern Window, eastern Alps, record mm- to cm-scale heterogeneities that reflect compositional variations in the accompanying metamorphic fluids. A close correlation between dolomite mode and dolomite δ18O is consistent with equilibrium partitioning among coexisting minerals and fluids. Small variations in dolomite δ13C values correspond with δ18O variations, but an overall decrease in dolomite δ13C by c. 1%o across a 12-cm sample is a relict feature that pre-dates eclogite equilibration. Garnet, omphacite, and clinozoisite rims show little systematic mineral-mineral partitioning behaviour for Ti, V, Cr, Y, Sr, or Zr; major elements, however, are well equilibrated among these same minerals. Despite the apparent lack of mineral-mineral trace element equilibration, most of the trace elements vary systematically with water activity calculated in each layer. Trace element behaviour during the eclogite metamorphism thus appears to have been controlled largely by mineral-fluid interactions along grain boundaries.Shallow structural levels in other subduction complexes (c. 10-45 km) typically exhibit fracture-controlled permeability and extensive metasomatism, but there is no field or geochemical evidence for extensive fluid advection during high-pressure metamorphism in the Tauern eclogites. Because most dewatering and devolatilization during tectonic burial occurs prior to eclogite conditions, the volumetric fluid/rock ratio in eclogites should generally be low. Low fluid/rock ratios, coupled with the possible non-wetting nature of the fluids, permits the production and preservation of fine-scale chemical heterogeneities in deeply subducted eclogites and associated fluids. However, the eventual breakdown at greater depth of volatile-bearing dolomite, phengite, clinozoisite, zoisite, or amphibole could lead to renewed fracture-controlled fluid release from the subducted rocks to regions appropriate for arc magma generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the organic analyte. The majority of planetary targets of astrobiological interest are characterized by the presence of water or hydrated mineral phases. Water signatures can indicate a history of available liquid water that may have played an important role in the chemical environment of these planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. The studies we report here investigate the influence of water content on the detectability of organics by L2MS in planetary analog samples.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN29318 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 21-25 Mar. 2016; The Woodlands, TX; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a well established laboratory technique for detecting and analyzing organic molecules. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and establishing chirol ratios [1 -3]. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for future in situ landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid ana1ytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through electrospray ionization (ESI) and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of this design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: GSFC.CPR.6831.2012 , Instrumentation for Planetary Missions Workshop/NASA; 10-12 Oct. 2012; Greenbelt, MD; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) is a versatile, low-complexity instrument class that holds significant promise for future landed in situ planetary missions that emphasize compositional analysis of surface materials. Here we describe a 5kg-class instrument that is capable of detecting and analyzing a variety of analytes directly from rock or ice samples. Through laboratory studies of a suite of representative samples, we show that detection and analysis of key mineral composition, small organics, and particularly, higher molecular weight organics are well suited to this instrument design. A mass range exceeding 100,000 Da has recently been demonstrated. We describe recent efforts in instrument prototype development and future directions that will enhance our analytical capabilities targeting organic mixtures on primitive and icy bodies. We present results on a series of standards, simulated mixtures, and meteoritic samples.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC.CPR.6830.2012 , Instrumentation for Planetary Missions Workshop/NASA; 12 Oct. 2012; Greenbelt, MD; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN40778 , International Journal of Astrobiology (ISSN 1473-5504) (e-ISSN 1574-3006); 15; 3; 239–250
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Measuring the chemical composition of planetary bodies and their atmospheres is key to understanding the formation of the Solar System and the evolution of the planets and their moons. In situ volatile measurements enable a ground-truth assessment of the distribution and abundance of resources such as water-ice and oxygen, important for a sustained human presence on the Moon and beyond. The Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) instrument is a compact pyrolysis mass spectrometer designed to detect volatiles released from solid samples that are heated to elevated temperatures and is one technique that should be considered for resource prospecting on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration; Exobiology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN36259 , International Workshop on Instrumentation for Planetary Missions; 24-27 Oct. 2016; Pasadena, CA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The presentation examines the application of low reflectance surfaces in optical instruments, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), research objects, MWCNT samples, measurement of 8 deg. directional/hemispherical reflectance, measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), and what is current the "blackest ever black".
    Keywords: Optics
    Type: SPIE Asia-Pacific Remote Sensing Symposium; 10-15 Oct. 2010; Incheon; Korea, Republic of
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The identification of lunar resources such as water is a fundamental component of the the NASA Vision for Space Exploration. The Lunar Prospector mission detected high concentrations of hydrogen at the lunar poles that may indicate the presence of water or other volatiles in the lunar regolith [1]. One explanation for the presence of enhanced hydrogen in permanently shadowed crater regions is long term trapping of water-ice delivered by comets, asteroids, and other meteoritic material that have bombarded the Moon over the last 4 billion years [2]. It is also possible that the hydrogen signal at the lunar poles is due to hydrogen implanted by the solar wind which is delayed from diffusing out of the regolith by the cold temperatures [3]. Previous measurements of the lunar atmosphere by the LACE experiment on Apollo 17, suggested the presence of cold trapped vola'tiles that were expelled by solar heating [4]. In situ composition and isotopic analyses of the lunar regolith will be required to establish the abundance, origin, and distribution of water-ice and other volatiles at the lunar poles. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) on the Moon using mass spectrometry is one technique that should be considered. The VAPoR pyrolysis-mass spectrometer (pyr-MS) instrument concept study was selected for funding in 2007 by the NASA Lunar Sortie Science Opportunities (LSSO) Program. VAPoR is a miniature version of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite currently being developed at NASA Goddard for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission (Fig. 1).
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Since the Viking Program, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) instruments have been used to explore a wide survey of planetary targets in our solar system, including (from the inner to outer reaches): Venus (Pioneer); our moon (LADEE); Mars (Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory); and, Saturns largest moon Titan (Cassini-Huygens). More recently, however, ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) instruments have found a niche as smaller, versatile alternatives to traditional quadrupole mass analyzers, capable of in situ characterization of planetary environments and the search for organic matter. For example, whereas typical QMS systems are limited to a mass range up to 500 Da and normally require multiple RF frequencies and pressures of less than 10(exp -6) mbar for optimal operation, ITMS instruments commonly reach upwards of 1000 Da or more on a single RF frequency, and function in higher pressure environments up to 10(exp -3) mbar.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN18368 , International Workshop on Instrumentation for Planetary Missions (IPM-2014); 4-7 Nov. 2014; Greenbelt, MD; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical/mineralogical makeup of organic host phases to help determine deposition and preservation factors. (4) Chemical Stratigraphy Analyze the fine spatial distribution and variation of key species with depth.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN17854 , International Workshop on Instrumentation for Planetary Missions; Nov 04, 2014 - Nov 07, 2014; Greenbelt, MD; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...