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  • 1
    Call number: 21/STR 05/16
    In: Scientific Technical Report STR
    Type of Medium: GFZ publications
    Pages: 126 S.
    Series Statement: Scientific Technical Report STR 05/06
    Note: Zugl.: Berlin, FU, Diss., 2004
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-08-03
    Description: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth’s past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG’s consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG’s complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: • the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and • the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-12-01
    Description: We want to study one of only very few examples of transition between oceanic and continental rifting, the Laptev Sea, because it is unusual. Generally, rifting processes are associated with focused earthquake and also magmatic activity, whereas the Laptev Sea shows diffuse seismicity and is amagmatic. This project will study the recent geodynamics and reconstruct Cenozoic rift evolution based on existing seismic data.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-07-05
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: We present new isotope (C, He, Ne, Ar, partly N) and compositional data from the free gas phase of fourteen degassing sites in the westernmost part of the Pannonian Basin near the Austria/Slovenia borderline. Based on these data, the origin of the gases and the degree of modification of the gas signatures due to interaction processes during migration are evaluated. The isotope signatures indicate an origin of helium and CO2 predominantly in the subcontinental mantle. Measured 3He/4He ratios from 4.95 to 6.32 Ra include the highest ones recorded in the whole Pannonian Basin system. Only at three locations in the periphery of the degassing center, a substantial admixture of crustal helium was found. The CO2 in the mofette gases and at the sites with the highest 3He/4He ratios (~ 6.3 Ra) is characterized by δ13C values of − 3.5‰. In comparison with MORB (Mid-ocean Ridge Basalt), it is thus slightly enriched in 13C. The 3He/4He isotope ratios within the range typical for the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) point to a fast, localized fluid transport from the magmatic reservoir to the surface. There are only few sites in European non-active volcanic regions where free gases with unmodified SCLM helium isotope signature escape at the surface. A comparison of the elemental and isotopic geochemical characteristics of gases with SCLM-helium signature from four different regions (Massif Central/France, Eifel/Germany, Eger Rift/Czech Republic and the westernmost part of the Pannonian Basin system) indicates that the European SCLM in general is characterized by a reservoir more enriched in 13C compared to MORB.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-27
    Description: The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They can, therefore, be treated as random but they do need to be removed in order to reduce random errors of the measurements. Using our large new data set, we construct phase-velocity maps for central and northern Europe. According to checkerboard tests, the lateral resolution in central Europe is ≤150 km. Comparison of regional surface-wave tomography with independent data on sediment thickness in North-German Basin and Polish Trough confirms the high-resolution potential of our phase-velocity measurements. At longer periods, the structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is seen clearly. The region of the Tornquist-Teisseyre-Zone in the southeast is associated with a stronger lateral contrast in lithospheric thickness, across the TESZ compared to the region across the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone in the northwest.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-17
    Description: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth’s past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG’s consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG’s complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the Cenozoic sedimentary succession that recorded the evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic horizontal and vertical motions, and land and water connections will also help better understanding the post-breakup evolution of the NE Atlantic conjugate margins and associated sedimentary basins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-04-06
    Description: The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the southern austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation It was retrieved one year late in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014 recorded more than 17 months of data until the batteries were discharged. In this contribution, we present data and first results from various seismological measurements, including temporal variation of seismic ambient noise studies, receiver functions, local seismicity, and ambient noise/noise correlation functions through examining the OBS data incorporating with the onshore seismic observation data.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-07
    Description: The gulf of Cadiz is a region considered as a complex seismic area, where strong earthquakes occur and where the plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates is not exactly known. In this paper, we use high resolution seismic data recorded by a network of OBS stations deployed for one year in the Gulf of Cadiz as well as eight permanent Portugal land seismic stations. The OBS network was deployed within an experiment of the NEAREST project. Nearly 600 seismic events are extracted from the recorded data set and their analysis revealed that most of them occur at 20 to 80 km depths, with clusters of seismicity that occur mainly at the Gorringe Bank, within the SW segment of the Horseshoe fault and the Marques de Pombal Plateau and the S. Vicente Fault. A new NW-SE trend of seismicity has been revealed with depths that extend from 35 to 80 km. This seismicity trend is close and nearly parallel to the SWIM (South West Iberian Margin) faults lineament. We further present in this paper, the first regional-scale high resolution P- and S-velocity distributions across the Gulf of Cadiz region. These velocity models are obtained using three-dimensional seismic tomography to invert the OBS data-set. The results show that the patterns of anomalies in the Gulf of Cadiz are in general, oriented in NE-SW and NW-SE directions. They also show the presence of a low velocity zone (LVZ) to the SE of our study area. At shallow depth, this LVZ is interpreted as due to a large accumulation of sediments within the accretionary wedge, while at a greater crustal depth, it may reflect a continental crustal composition rather than an oceanic crust. Moreover, seismic velocity profiles show that under this region of the Cadiz Gulf, the Moho averages a 30-km depth. The Gorringe Bank and the Marquise de Pombal plateau are found to be deeply rooted and represent expressions of mantle uplifting. The association of these deep anomalies with active seismicity that occurs at their levels, indicates that the uplifting of these ridges is still an ongoing process. Furthermore, a NW-SE zone of high velocity is found to the SW of our study area. This zone occurs along and parallel to the SWIM faults zone (SFZ) and appears to support the hypothesis that the SFZ represents the boundary between the Nubia and the Eurasia plates at the Gulf of Cadiz level as previously suggested [1].
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-02-02
    Description: A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) occurs west of Svalbard in water depths exceeding 600 m, indicating that gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments is more widespread in this region than anywhere else on the eastern North Atlantic margin. Regional BSR mapping shows the presence of hydrate and free gas in several areas, with the largest area located north of the Knipovich Ridge, a slow-spreading ridge segment of the Mid Atlantic Ridge system. Here, heat flow is high (up to 330 mW m-2), increasing towards the ridge axis. The coinciding maxima in across-margin BSR width and heat flow suggest that the Knipovich Ridge influenced methane generation in this area. This is supported by recent finds of thermogenic methane at cold seeps north of the ridge termination. To evaluate the source rock potential on the western Svalbard margin, we applied 1D petroleum system modeling at three sites. The modeling shows that temperature and burial conditions near the ridge were sufficient to produce hydrocarbons. The bulk petroleum mass produced since the Eocene is at least 5 kt and could be as high as ~0.2 Mt. Most likely, source rocks are Miocene organic-rich sediments and a potential Eocene source rock that may exist in the area if early rifting created sufficiently deep depocenters. Thermogenic methane production could thus explain the more widespread presence of gas hydrates north of the Knipovich Ridge. The presence of microbial methane on the upper continental slope and shelf indicates that the origin of methane on the Svalbard margin varies spatially.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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