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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 42 (2012): 291–305, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-043.1.
    Description: A number of previous observational studies have found that the waters of the deep Pacific Ocean have an age, or elapsed time since contact with the surface, of 700–1000 yr. Numerical models suggest ages twice as old. Here, the authors present an inverse framework to determine the mean age and its upper and lower bounds given Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) radiocarbon observations, and they show that the potential range of ages increases with the number of constituents or sources that are included in the analysis. The inversion requires decomposing the World Ocean into source waters, which is obtained here using the total matrix intercomparison (TMI) method at up to 2° × 2° horizontal resolution with 11 113 surface sources. The authors find that the North Pacific at 2500-m depth can be no younger than 1100 yr old, which is older than some previous observational estimates. Accounting for the broadness of surface regions where waters originate leads to a reservoir-age correction of almost 100 yr smaller than would be estimated with a two or three water-mass decomposition and explains some of the discrepancy with previous observational studies. A best estimate of mean age is also presented using the mixing history along circulation pathways. Subject to the caveats that inference of the mixing history would benefit from further observations and that radiocarbon cannot rule out the presence of extremely old waters from exotic sources, the deep North Pacific waters are 1200–1500 yr old, which is more in line with existing numerical model results.
    Description: GG is supported by the J. Lamar Worzel Assistant Scientist Fund and the Penzance Endowed Fund in Support of Assistant Scientists. PJH is supported by NSF Award 0960787.
    Description: 2012-08-01
    Keywords: North Pacific Ocean ; Mass fluxes/transport ; Ocean circulation ; Tracers ; Optimization ; Variational analysis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
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    John Wiley & Sons
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 29 (2014): 190-209, doi:10.1002/2013PA002557.
    Description: Observations of δ13C and Cd/Ca from benthic foraminifera have been interpreted to reflect a shoaling of northern source waters by about 1000 m during the Last Glacial Maximum, with the degree of shoaling being significant enough for the water mass to be renamed Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water. These nutrient tracers, however, may not solely reflect changes in water mass distributions. To quantify the distribution of Glacial North Atlantic Water, we perform a glacial water mass decomposition where the sparsity of data, geometrical constraints, and nonconservative tracer effects are taken into account, and the extrapolation for the unknown water mass end-members is guided by the modern-day circulation. Under the assumption that the glacial sources of remineralized material are similar to that of the modern day, we find a steady solution consistent with 241 δ13C, 87 Cd/Ca, and 174 δ18O observations and their respective uncertainties. The water mass decomposition indicates that the core of Glacial North Atlantic Water shoals and southern source water extends in greater quantities into the abyssal North Atlantic, as previously inferred. The depth of the deep northern-southern water mass interface and the volume of North Atlantic Water, however, are not grossly different from that of the modern day. Under this scenario, the vertical structure of glacial δ13C and Cd/Ca is primarily due to the greater accumulation of nutrients in lower North Atlantic Water, which may be a signal of the hoarding of excess carbon from the atmosphere by the glacial Atlantic.
    Description: G.G. is supported by NSF grants OIA-1124880 and OCE-1301907, and the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute.
    Description: 2014-09-13
    Keywords: Water mass geometry ; Tracer distributions ; Inverse methods ; Remineralization ; Last Glacial Maximum ; Circulation variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 125 (2015): 144-159, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.08.010.
    Description: A paleo-data compilation with 492 δ13C and δ18O observations provides the opportunity to better sample the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and infer its global properties, such as the mean δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Here, the paleocompilation is used to reconstruct a steady-state water-mass distribution for the LGM, that in turn is used to map the data onto a 3D global grid. A global-mean marine δ13C value and a self-consistent uncertainty estimate are derived using the framework of state estimation (i.e., combining a numerical model and observations). The LGM global-mean δ13C is estimated to be 0:14h±0:20h at the two standard error level, giving a glacial-to-modern change of 0:32h±0:20h. The magnitude of the error bar is attributed to the uncertain glacial ocean circulation and the lack of observational constraints in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans. Observations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans generally have 10 times the weight of an Atlantic point in the computation of the global mean. To halve the error bar, roughly four times more observations are needed, although strategic sampling may reduce this number. If dynamical constraints can be used to better characterize the LGM circulation, the error bar can also be reduced to 0:05 to 0:1h, emphasizing that knowledge of the circulation is vital to accurately map δ13CDIC in three dimensions.
    Description: GG is supported by NSF grants OIA-1124880 and OCE-1357121, the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute, and The Joint Initiative Awards Fund from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
    Keywords: Paleoceanography ; Physical Oceanography ; Carbon reservoirs ; Last Glacial Maximum ; Inverse methods
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 30 (2015): 1470-1489, doi:10.1002/2014PA002743.
    Description: The ocean circulation modifies mixed layer (ML) tracer signals as they are communicated to the deep ocean by advection and mixing. We develop and apply a procedure for using tracer signals observed “upstream” (by planktonic foraminifera) and “downstream” (by benthic foraminifera) to constrain how tracer signals are modified by the intervening circulation and, by extension, to constrain properties of that circulation. A history of ML equilibrium calcite δ18O (δ18Oc) spanning the last deglaciation is inferred from a least-squares fit of eight benthic foraminiferal δ18Oc records to Green's function estimated for the modern ocean circulation. Disagreements between this history and the ML history implied by planktonic records would indicate deviations from the modern circulation. No deviations are diagnosed because the two estimates of ML δ18Oc agree within their uncertainties, but we suggest data collection and modeling procedures useful for inferring circulation changes in future studies. Uncertainties of benthic-derived ML δ18Oc are lowest in the high-latitude regions chiefly responsible for ventilating the deep ocean; additional high-resolution planktonic records constraining these regions are of particular utility. Benthic records from the Southern Ocean, where data are sparse, appear to have the most power to reduce uncertainties in benthic-derived ML δ18Oc. Understanding the spatiotemporal covariance of deglacial ML δ18Oc will also improve abilities of δ18Oc records to constrain deglacial circulation.
    Description: 2016-05-12
    Keywords: Oxygen isotopes ; Inverse modeling ; Deglaciation ; Tracers ; Ocean circulation ; Green's function
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union & the American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2017-08-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 24 (2017): 351-366, doi:10.5194/npg-24-351-2017.
    Description: The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or "4D-VAR") has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task – a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere–ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.
    Description: Geoffrey Gebbie was funded through the Ocean and Climate Change Institute of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Tsung-Lin Hsieh was funded by the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations Fund for Summer Student Fellows through the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-01
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 33 (2018): 1013-1034, doi:10.1029/2018PA003408.
    Description: The chemical composition of benthic foraminifera from marine sediment cores provides information on how glacial subsurface water properties differed from modern, but separating the influence of changes in the origin and end‐member properties of subsurface water from changes in flows and mixing is challenging. Spatial gaps in coverage of glacial data add to the uncertainty. Here we present new data from cores collected from the Demerara Rise in the western tropical North Atlantic, including cores from the modern tropical phosphate maximum at Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) depths. The results suggest lower phosphate concentration and higher carbonate saturation state within the phosphate maximum than modern despite similar carbon isotope values, consistent with less accumulation of respired nutrients and carbon, and reduced air‐sea gas exchange in source waters to the region. An inversion of new and published glacial data confirms these inferences and further suggests that lower preformed nutrients in AAIW, and partial replacement of this still relatively high‐nutrient AAIW with nutrient‐depleted, carbonate‐rich waters sourced from the region of the modern‐day northern subtropics, also contributed to the observed changes. The results suggest that glacial preformed and remineralized phosphate were lower throughout the upper Atlantic, but deep phosphate concentration was higher. The inversion, which relies on the fidelity of the paleoceanographic data, suggests that the partial replacement of North Atlantic sourced deep water by Southern Ocean Water was largely responsible for the apparent deep North Atlantic phosphate increase, rather than greater remineralization.
    Description: National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Numbers: OCE‐0750880, OCE‐1335191, OCE‐1558341, OCE‐1536380; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Grant Numbers: 27007592, 27000808
    Keywords: Glacial Atlantic circulation ; Preformed phosphate ; Remineralized phosphate ; Antarctic Intermediate Water ; Nutrient redistribution ; Tropical phosphate maximum
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7 (2006): Q11N07, doi:10.1029/2006GC001383.
    Description: The vertical profile of meridional transport in the South Atlantic is examined by combining paleoceanographic observations with a geostrophic circulation model using an inverse method. δ18Ocalcite observations along the margins of the South Atlantic show that upper-ocean cross-basin differences were weaker during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) than the Holocene. The δ18Ocalcite observations can be explained by a shift of water-mass properties without any change in the overturning circulation. Alternatively, they may indicate a reduced LGM cross-basin density difference and, via the thermal wind relation, a reduced vertical shear. Model inversions of δ18Ocalcite are found to require meridional transports different from the modern only after three assumptions are made: temperature and salinity distributions are spatially smooth, the relationship between salinity and δ18Owater is linear and spatially invariant, and LGM temperatures are known to within 1°C along the margins. The last assumption is necessary because an independent constraint on temperature or salinity is required to determine density from δ18Ocalcite observations. δ18Ocalcite observations are clearly useful, but before any firm constraints can be placed on LGM meridional transport, it appears necessary to better determine the relationship between δ18Ocalcite and density.
    Description: P.H. was funded by the NOAA postdoctoral program in climate and global change, and G.G. was partially funded by NSF paleoclimate program ATM-0502482.
    Keywords: Inverse modeling ; Last Glacial Maximum ; Meridional ocean circulation ; Geostrophy
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 37 (2007): 394-407, doi:10.1175/jpo3018.1.
    Description: The ability of paleoceanographic tracers to constrain rates of transport is examined using an inverse method to combine idealized observations with a geostrophic model. Considered are the spatial distribution, accuracy, and types of tracers required to constrain changes in meridional transport within an idealized single-hemisphere basin. Measurements of density and radioactive tracers each act to constrain rates of transport. Conservative tracers, while not of themselves able to inform regarding rates of transport, improve constraints when coupled with density or radioactive observations. It is found that the tracer data would require an accuracy one order of magnitude better than is presently available for paleo-observations to conclusively rule out factor-of-2 changes in meridional transport, even when assumed available over the entire model domain. When data are available only at the margins and bottom of the model, radiocarbon is unable to constrain transport while density remains effective only when a reference velocity level is assumed. The difficulty in constraining the circulation in this idealized model indicates that placing firm bounds on past meridional transport rates will prove challenging.
    Description: The first author is supported by the NOAA Postdoctoral Program in Climate and Global Change and GG by the National Ocean Partnership Program (ECCO). Author OM acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Tracers ; Transport ; Paleoclimatology ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-06-02
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 31 (2016): 472–490, doi:10.1002/2015PA002917.
    Description: Compilations of paleoceanographic observations for the deep sea now contain a few hundred points along the oceanic margins, mid-ocean ridges, and bathymetric highs, where seawater conditions are indirectly recorded in the chemistry of buried benthic foraminiferal shells. Here we design an idealized experiment to test our predictive ability to reconstruct modern-day seawater properties by considering paleoceanographic-like data. We attempt to reconstruct the known, modern-day global distributions by using a state estimation method that combines a kinematic tracer transport model with observations that have paleoceanographic characteristics. When a modern-like suite of observations (Θ, practical salinity, seawater δ18O, inline image, PO4, NO3, and O2) is used from the sparse paleolocations, the state estimate is consistent with the withheld data at all depths below 1500 m, suggesting that the observational sparsity can be overcome. Physical features, such as the interbasin gradients in deep inline image and the vertical structure of Atlantic inline image, are accurately reconstructed. The state estimation method extracts useful information from the pointwise observations to infer distributions at the largest oceanic scales (at least 10,000 km horizontally and 1500 m vertically) and outperforms a standard optimal interpolation technique even though neither dynamical constraints nor constraints from surface boundary fluxes are used. When the sparse observations are more realistically restricted to the paleoceanographic proxy observations of δ13C, δ18O, and Cd/Ca, however, the large-scale property distributions are no longer recovered coherently. At least three more water mass tracers are likely needed at the core sites in order to accurately reconstruct the large-scale property distributions of the Last Glacial Maximum.
    Description: NSF Grant Numbers: 1124880, 1125422
    Description: 2016-10-08
    Keywords: Water mass geometry ; Tracer distributions ; Inverse methods ; Last Glacial Maximum ; Identical twin experiment ; Isotope records
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
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    Oceanography Society
    Publication Date: 2019-04-17
    Description: Author Posting. © Oceanography Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Gebbie, G. Atlantic warming since the little ice age. Oceanography, 32(1), (2019):220-230, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2019.151.
    Description: Radiocarbon observations suggest that the deep Atlantic Ocean takes up to several centuries to fully respond to changes at the sea surface. Thus, the ocean’s memory is longer than the modern instrumental period of oceanography, and the determination of modern warming of the subsurface Atlantic requires information from paleoceanographic data sets. In particular, paleoceanographic proxy data compiled by the Ocean2k project indicate that there was a global cooling from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age over the years 900−1800, followed by modern warming that began around 1850. An ocean simulation that is forced by a combined instrumental-​proxy reconstruction of surface temperatures over the last 2,000 years shows that the deep Atlantic continues to cool even after the surface starts warming. As a consequence of the multicentury surface climate history, the ocean simulation suggests that the deep Atlantic doesn’t take up as much heat during the modern warming era as the case where the ocean was in equilibrium at 1750. Both historical hydrographic observations and proxy records of the subsurface Atlantic are needed to determine whether the effects of the Little Ice Age did indeed persist well after the surface climate had already shifted to warmer conditions.
    Description: The author thanks Peter Huybers for collaborating on the Common Era temperature evolution, Lars Henrik Smedsrud for the encouragement to write this manuscript and compute heat fluxes, and to Ellen Kappel, Paul Durack, and Alex Sen Gupta for their handling of the manuscript. GG is supported by the James E. and Barbara V. Moltz Fellowship and NSF OCE-1357121. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to the author.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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