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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/4
    In: CRREL Report, 80-4
    Description / Table of Contents: The primary objectives of this study were to 1) prepare a map from Landsat imagery of the Upper Susitna River Basin drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields, 2) identify possible faults and lineaments within the upper basin and within a 100-km radius of the proposed Devil Canyon and Watana dam sites as observed on Landsat imagery, and 3) prepare a Landsat-derived map showing the distribution of surficial geologic materials and poorly drained areas. The EROS Digital Image Enhancement System (EDIES) provided computer- enhanced images of Landsat-1 scene 5470-19560. The EDIES false color composite of this scene was used as the base for mapping drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields, six surficial geologic materials units and poorly drained areas. We used some single-band and other color composites of Landsat images during interpretation. All the above maps were prepared by photointerpretation of Landsat images without using computer analysis, aerial photographs, field data, or published reports. These other data sources were used only after the mapping was completed to compare and verify the information interpreted and delineations mapped from the Landsat images. Four Landsat-1 MSS band 7 winter scenes were used in the photomosaic prepared for the lineament mapping. We mapped only those lineaments related to reported regional tectonics, although there were many more lineaments evident on the Landsat photomosaic.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 41 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-4
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Objectives Conclusions Introduction Background Previous cooperative investigations Project rationale and coordination Approach Landsat imagery Interpretation techniques Part I. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping the drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields (Lawrence W. Gatto) Objective Methods Results Conclusions Part II. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping and evaluating geologiclineaments and possible faults (Carolyn J. Merry) Objective Geologic structure Methods Results Conclusions Part Ill. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping surficial materials Section A. Landsat mapping (Harlan L. McKim) Objective Methods Results Section B. Field evaluation (Daniel E. Lawson) Objectives Methods Results Discussion Section C. Conclusions (Daniel E. Lawson and Harlan L. McKim) Literature cited Glossary
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/25
    In: CRREL Report, 78-25
    Description / Table of Contents: The objectives of this investigation were to describe channel characteristics and geographic settings of ice jam sites from aerial photographic interpretation, to indicate which characteristics may be important in causing ice jams, and to suggest additional uses of aerial photographs. Aerial photographs were taken of 19 sites with a Zeiss RMK 15/23 aerial camera on 17, 19, and 21 April 1976. Uncontrolled photomosaics of each site were assembled and major river characteristics were delineated on the photomosaics. Characteristics described include: manmade structures, falls, rapids, changes in channel depths, channel islands, mid-channel shoals or bars, river bed material, river sinuosity, meanders, floodplain width, riparian vegetation, and types of development on the floodplain. River channel widths were measured from the photographs along rivers where ground truth data were available for comparison. Lengths of channel riffles and pools were measured along the rivers where variations in river depths were evident on the photographs. Seventy-nine percent of the sites have some form of flow control structure which causes a pool with a backwater condition of low velocity. The low flow condition in the pool allows a solid ice cover to form which impedes ice movement and initiates ice jams. Aerial photographs provide a regional perspective for evaluating channel characteristics at an ice jam site and for analyzing the geographic setting at each site during ice-free conditions. Photographs taken after ice jams have formed are useful in monitoring ice jam formation, in analyzing ice characteristics, and in documenting ice jam breakup and movement.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 60 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-25
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-76/25
    In: CRREL Report, 76-25
    Description / Table of Contents: The primary objective of this investigation was to compile baseline information pertaining to the ocean circulation, especially the extent and patterns of tidal currents and tidal flushing, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, utilizing aircraft and satellite imagery with corroborative ground truth data. LANDSAT-1 and NOAA-2 and -3 imagery provided repetitive, synoptic views of surface currents, water mass migration and sediment distribution during different seasons and tides. Color, color infrared and thermal infrared imagery acquired on 22 July 1972 with the NASA NP-3A aircraft were used to analyze currents, mixing patterns and sediment dispersion in selected areas. Temperature(C), salinity (0/00) and suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) data and hand-held photography were utilized as ground truth information in the interpretation of the aircraft and satellite imagery. Coriolis effect, semidiurnal tides and the Alaska current govern the estuary circulation. Clear, oceanic water enters the inlet on the southeast during flood tide, progresses northward along the east shore with minor lateral mixing, and remains a distinct water mass to the latitude of Kasilof-Ninilchik. South of the forelands, mixing with turbid inlet water becomes extensive. Turbid water moves south primarily along the north shore during ebb tide and a shear zone between the two water masses forms in mid-inlet south of Kalgin Island. Currents adjacent to and north of the forelands are complicated by tidal action, coastal configuration and bottom effects. Turbulence is greatest throughout the water column along the south shore and stratification is more pronounced in Kamishak and Kachemak Bays, especially when fresh water runoff is high.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: ix, 92 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-25
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Conversion factors: U.S. customary to metric (SI) units of measurement. Introduction Background Objectives Project history Approach Aircraft imagery LANDSAT-1 imagery NOAA-2 and -3 satellite imagery Ground truth data Imagery and ground truth data analysis Physical and cultural setting Geography Geology Climate Hydrology Local industry and population density Sources of estuarine pollution Results and discussion Coastal configuration Bathymetry Tides Asymmetry of tidal flow/duration across inlet Suspended sediment distribution and circulation Sea ice Tidal flushing characteristics Summary and conclusions Applications Recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. RS-14 infrared scanner imagery
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/11
    In: CRREL Report, 82-11
    Description / Table of Contents: The purpose of this investigation was to provide data to be used in evaluating the effects of winter navigation on pro­cesses that cause bank erosion. The specific objectives were to document bank conditions and erosion sites along the rivers, to monitor and compare the amounts of winter and summer bank recession and change, and to estimate the amount of recession that occurred prior to winter navigation. Shoreline conditions and bank recession were documented during field surveys each spring and fall. Bank changes were evaluated by comparison to observations from a previous survey. Aerial photointerpretation was done to estimate the amount of bank recession that occurred prior to winter navigation. Three hundred forty-five miles of river shoreline were surveyed. Banks were eroding along 21.5 miles (6.2%). The common types of bank failures were soil falls (sloughing) and block sliding and slumping. The erosion along approxi­mately 15 miles (70%) of the 21.5 miles was occurring along reaches not bordering winter navigation channels.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 75 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-11
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Previous investigations Approach Shoreline conditions Bank changes Bank recession before winter navigation St. Marys River Bank changes Bank recession before winter navigation St. Clair River Bank changes Bank recession before winter navigation Detroit River Bank changes Bank recession before winter navigation St. Lawrence River Bank changes Historical bank recession Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: St. Marys River Appendix B: St. Clair River Appendix C: Detroit River Appendix D: St. Lawrence River
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  • 5
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/17
    In: CRREL Report, 78-17
    Description / Table of Contents: This investigation utilized historical and recent aerial photographs and satellite imagery in (1) estimating changes in positions of the high-water line and sea cliff break and base, in rates of accretion and/or erosion, and in volumes of transported sediment, and (2) providing a preliminary evaluation of the direction of littoral transport along the outer Cape Cod coast. Using aerial photographs acquired in 1938, 1952, 1971 and 1974 with manual photointerpretation techniques, changes in the distances from selected reference points to the cliff break, cliff base and the high-water line were measured. LANDSAT-1 and -2 imagery acquired from 1 September 1972 to 28 May 1975 was evaluated for use in determining the directions of littoral transport that are active the predominant amount of time. Although the imagery has been very useful for this purpose at other locations, it proved to be useless along thq outer shore of Cape Cod. Largest net migrations of the high water line from 1938 to 1974 occurred in the northern and southern portions of this coast. The northern maximum high water line was 321.4 ft, the southern was 1794.6 ft. The central portion of the coast was generally more stable with changes varying from 6.8 to 157.6 ft. Cliff-base recession rates varied from 0.4 to 7.3 ft/yr. Maximum estimated net volume of sediment deposited per linear foot of beach from 1938 to 1974 was 334 cu yd (based on 2 cu yd/ft of recession or accretion); maximum eroded was 914 cu yd. Changes in the configuration of spits were used to evaluate directions of littoral transport since suspended-sediment concentrations were generally not sufficient to act as natural tracers of surface currents.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 49 S. : Ill., Kt.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-17
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/18
    In: CRREL Report, 78-18
    Description / Table of Contents: The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the utility of remote sensing techniques as an operational tool in the acquisition of data required by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, in the Grays Harbor dredging effects project, and related projects. Aerial imagery was used to map surface circulation and suspended sediment patterns near the hopper dredge pump site at the harbor entrance and near pulpmill outfalls in Aberdeen, and to map the areal distribution and extent of intertidal habitats. The surface circulation maps prepared from the aerial photographs and thermal imagery compared favorably with the large-scale circulation patterns observed in the Grays Harbor hydraulic model at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Of the imagery provided by NASA, the thermal imagery was more useful than the color or color infrared (CIR) photographs for mapping circula­tion, while the CIR photographs were more useful than the thermal imagery or the color photographs for mapping intertidal habitats. Current velocities estimated from dye dispersion patterns and drifting dye drogues were comparable at some locations to velocities measured by in situ current meters and in the hydraulic model. Based on a cursory evaluation of LANDSAT-1 imagery acquired in January, February, and October 1973, it had limited utility in providing data on surface circulation patterns in Grays Harbor. The areal distribution and extent of nine wetland vegetation types, dune vegetation, and three types of eelgrass were mapped using primarily aerial C IR photographs and ground sur­veys. Color photographs were also used for areas not covered by the C IR photographs. Wetland vegetation types mapped were: low silty marsh, low sandy marsh, sedge marsh, high immature marsh, high mature marsh, salt marsh, diked pasture, freshwater marsh, and wooded swamp. Undiked salt marsh (first five types) covered 5540 acres (22.3 km2) in Grays Harbor.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 85 S. : Ill., Kt.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-18
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Sitedescription Background and objectives Projecthistory Approach General Aircraft imagery and sensor data LANDSAT imagery Ground truth data Results and discussion Remote sensing techniques Conventional techniques Comparison of results Conclusions Advantages and disadvantages Applications Recommendations Literature cited ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Location map, Grays Harbor, Washington Approximate locations of flight lines for daylight NASA NP-3A air­ craft missions 283 and 305 Approximate locations of flight lines for night NASA NP-3A aircraft missions 283 and 305 Sample site and dye release locations Grays Harbor and northwestern Washington, portion of LANDSAT-1 image 1169-18375 acquired on 8 January 1973 Color and color infrared photographs, taken 13 July 1974 Surface circulation patterns inferred from NASA NP-3A color and CIR photographs acquired on 13 July 1974 South jetty, 13 July 1974 RS-14 thermal IR imagery with graph of PRT-5 radiation ther­ mometer data Surface circulation patterns inferred from NASA RS-14 thermal scanner imagery acquired 12-13 July 1974 shown in Figure 9 Surface circulation patterns inferred fro NASA NP-3A color and CIR photographs acquired on 10 April 1975 South shore, east of Stearns Bluff near O'Leary Creek, 10 April 1975
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 9 (1987), S. 143-154 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract This analysis was done as the preliminary step in an ongoing study of reservoir bank erosion processes that are active in the northern U.S. The objectives of this analysis were to observe and document bank characteristics, conditions, and changes along reservoirs with eroding banks, to estimate the amounts of historical bank recession and to discuss its possible causes. Aerial photographs were used to observe the historical bank changes and estimate bank recession. Site reconnaissance, discussions with on-site personnel, and published reports were used to evaluate possible relationships between the local erosion and bank conditions. As part of this analysis linear regressions were done to determine if the estimated recession rates correlate with selected bank and climatic conditions and with physical characteristics of the reservoirs. The regression results, however, were generally not useful because they suggested relationships that are contrary to field observations and published results. Dominant bank erosion processes were wind-wave erosion, capillary wave erosion during high-water periods, groundwater-induced sliding, freeze-thaw processes, rain splash and rainwash, and boat waves. However, because of the complexity of the interrelationships of these and many other bank erosion processes and the variability of the processes at and between sites, it would be necessary to make site-specific measurements and observations year-round to evaluate the processes that are active along a particular bank.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2005-08-04
    Description: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery data can provide information on types and distribution of river and lake ice needed for studying river ice processes and dynamics, monitoring ice during winter navigation, and formulating ice control strategies. Visible and IR remote sensing systems cannot provide such data and present field methods are inadequate for characterizing ice conditions over long river reaches. Our ongoing analysis of JPL's AIRSAR imagery data and concurrent ground truth of ice conditions on the Tanana River and surrounding lakes near Fairbanks, Alaska, in March 1988, has resulted in several findings: hummocked ice covers and zones of variable ice surface roughness within them can be differentiated; C- and L-band data are more sensitive than P-band to the range of surface roughnesses encountered; smooth, level ice that is clear or contains small bubbles produces little backscatter; snow-covered river ice, whether rough or smooth, is distinguishable from snow-covered river sediments on exposed river beds and unvegetated bars; and open water leads are readily distinguished.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL, Proceedings of the Second Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop; p 37-42
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-4898
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-1204
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2001-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-4898
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-1204
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Elsevier
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