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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): D23103, doi:10.1029/2004JD004982.
    Description: Definitions of the extratropical tropopause are examined from the perspective of chemical composition. Fine-scale measurements of temperature, ozone, carbon monoxide, and water vapor from approximately 70 aircraft flights, with ascending and descending tropopause crossings near 40°N and 65°N, are used in this analysis. Using the relationship of the stratospheric tracer O3 and the tropospheric tracer CO, we address the issues of tropopause sharpness and where the transitions from troposphere to stratosphere occur in terms of the chemical composition. Tracer relationships indicate that mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air masses occurs in the vicinity of the tropopause to form a transition layer. Statistically, this transition layer is centered on the thermal tropopause. Furthermore, we show that the transition is much sharper near 65°N (a region away from the subtropical jet) but spans a larger altitude range near 40°N (in the vicinity of the subtropical jet). This latter feature is consistent with enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange and mixing activity near the tropopause break.
    Description: This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation through its support to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, by the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite guest investigator program, and by the NASA Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program. Work performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was carried out under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    Keywords: Tropopause definitions ; Stratosphere-tropopause exchange ; Tracer-tracer correlations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Fluid dynamic aspects of the Antarctic ozone hole phenomena are studied. Data collected by the ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) are used to calculate the potential vorticity distribution on potential temperature surfaces. Most of the ER-2 flights show a monotonic decrease in potential vorticity and nitrous oxide toward the pole on isentropic surfaces.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 11625-11
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A program designed to study the Antarctic ozone hole using ER-2 high-altitude and DC-8 aircraft was conducted out of Punta Arenas, Chile during August 17-September 22, 1987. Graphs are presented of ozone and chlorine monoxide when crossing the boundary of the chemically perturbed region on August 23 and on September 21. Interpretations of ClO, H2O, and N2O measurements are presented, indicating ongoing diabetic cooling and advective poleward transport across the boundary.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 11437-11
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The paper uses particle size and volume measurements obtained with the forward scattering spectrometer probe model 300 during January and February 1989 in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment to investigate processes important in the formation and growth of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. It is suggested on the basis of comparisons of the observations with expected sulfuric acid droplet deliquescence that in the Arctic a major fraction of the sulfuric acid droplets remain liquid until temperatures at least as low as 193 K. It is proposed that homogeneous freezing of the sulfuric acid droplets might occur near 190 K and might play a role in the formation of PSCs.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D8, M; 8015-803
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Atmospheric dynamics at altitudes of 17.5-19 km were analyzed using measurements of N2O, total water, total odd-nitrogen species, and potential vorticity (derived from pressures, temperatures, and wind speeds) obtained aboard the ER-2 aircraft flown in the period between August 23 and September 22 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Results indicated a consistent gradual poleward movement of air, extending from about 10 deg in latitude outside the boundary of the ozone hole to about 5 deg inside. Evidence is presented of ongoing diabatic cooling throughout this zone, both inside and outside the chemically perturbed region.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 16797-16
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The meridional distribution of NO(x) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere is inferred form 10 flights of the NASA DC-8 in the northern winter of 1992 along with like distributions of NO(y), NO(x)/NO(y), CO, and C2Cl4. In the lowest few km of the stratosphere there is little vertical gradient in NO(x) over the range of latitiudes measured (40 deg-90 deg N). There is a substantial latitudinal gradient, with 50 pptv above the pole and 120 pptv near 40 deg N. In the uppermost few km of the troposphere, background values range from 30 pptv over the pole to 90 pptv near 40 deg N. On two occasions higher values, up to 140 pptv in the mean, were seen 2-3 km below the tropopause in association with frontal systems. The meridional distributions of CO and C2Cl4 show the same feature, suggesting that the source of the elevated NO(x) is near the earth's system.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 21; 23; p. 2583-2586
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2005-06-09
    Description: A mountain wave event, observed at the southern tip of Greenland on January 6, 1992, was corroborated by three experiments: the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS), the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), and the Reactive Nitrogen Instrument (NO/NO(y)). Gravity wave signatures with classical phase relationship between wind and temperature were observed on both the outbound and inbound legs at different altitudes. The waves showed both vertically propagating and evanescent properties. Characteristics of the dominant wave mode are: wavelength approximately equals 35 km, vertical displacement approximately equals 0.8 km, and peak-to-peak vertical wind approximately equals 6 ms-1. With the prevailing wind at approximately equals 37 m/s, the stratospheric temperature was reduced by 6 K to 195.5 K within 8 minutes. The implication and potential impact of mountain lee waves on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) are discussed.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); Volume 20; No. 22; 2551-2554; NASA-TM-112699
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: On two days during SUCCESS, the DC-8 sampled wave clouds which formed downstream of the ridges east of the Rocky Mountains. Wave morphology for both flights is deduced from temperature and 3-dimensional wind measurements from the MMS, isentrope profiles from the MTP, and linear perturbation theory. The waves observed on 960430 are smaller and found to be decaying with altitude, while the waves sampled on 960502 are vertically propagating and consist of larger, multiple wave scales. Wave orientations are consistent with the underlying topography and regions of high ice crystal concentration. Updraft velocities were estimated from the derived wave properties and are consistent with MMS vertical winds.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Computer simulations were used to study the accuracy of remotely sensed microwave radiometer measurements of excess radio propagation path delay due to atmospheric water vapor. A number of strategies were investigated for remote sensing of path delay in order to define baseline parameters for the design of water vapor radiometers (WVRs) in geodetic applications. Strategies were judged according to their retrieval performance in a variety of climatological regions. An observing approach using the frequency 20.7/22.2/31.4 Gz was found to be close to optimum. A statistical retrieval approach using retrieval coefficients stratified for clear and cloudy weather was identified as a substantial improvement over conventional single-set all-weather retrieval strategies. It is shown that a reasonably well optimized WVR with an estimated calibration uncetainty of 0.5 K can achieve an overall retrieval performance of 0.27 cm in clear weather; and 0.51 cm in cloudy weather. The weather-averaged retrieval performance for individual locations was found to vary by no more than 14 percent from the average for all locations despite a mean path delay of 5 to 26 cm.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-23; 479-484
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report; p 61-74
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