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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79 (10). pp. 2033-2058.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: In the autumn of 1996 the field component of an experiment designed to observe water mass transformation began in the Labrador Sea. Intense observations of ocean convection were taken in the following two winters. The purpose of the experiment was, by a combination of meteorological and oceanographic field observations, laboratory studies, theory, and modeling, to improve understanding of the convective process in the ocean and its representation in models. The dataset that has been gathered far exceeds previous efforts to observe the convective process anywhere in the ocean, both in its scope and range of techniques deployed. Combined with a comprehensive set of meteorological and air-sea flux measurements, it is giving unprecedented insights into the dynamics and thermodynamics of a closely coupled, semienclosed system known to have direct influence on the processes that control global climate.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The VLA is used to measure 21 cm absorption in directions with the absolute value of b less than 1 deg., the absolute value of 1 less than 25 deg. to probe the cool atomic gas in the inner galaxy. Abundant H I absorption is detected; typical lines are deep and narrow, sometimes blending in velocity with adjacent features. Unlike 21 cm emission not all allowed velocities are covered: large portions of the l-v diagram are optically thin. Although not similar to H I emission, the absorption shows a striking correspondence with CO emission in the inner galaxy: essentially every strong feature detected in one survey is seen in the other. The provisional conclusion is that in the inner galaxy most cool atomic gas is associated with molecular cloud complexes. There are few or no cold atomic clouds devoid of molecules in the inner galaxy, although these are common in the outer galaxy.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center Summer School on Interstellar Processes: Abstracts of Contributed Papers; p 79-80
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Type: IAPSO XXI General Assembly%K Ocean Processes%K Greenland Sea%U http://techreports.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0259.pdf%X !; August 5-12, 1995; Honolulu, HI; United States
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Description: A bstract This paper serves two roles. First, it acts as an introduction to Blender, an open-source computer graphics program, which can be of utility to paleontologists. To lessen the software's otherwise steep learning curve, a step-by-step guide to create an idealized reconstruction of a fossil in the form of a three-dimensional model in Blender, or to use the software to render results from ‘virtual paleontology' techniques, is provided as an online supplemental data file. Second, here we demonstrate the use of Blender with a case study on the extinct trigonotarbid arachnids. We report the limb articulations of members of the Devonian genus Palaeocharinus on the basis of exceptionally preserved fossils from the Rhynie Cherts of Scotland. We use these newly reported articulations to create a Blender model, and draw comparisons with the gait of extant arachnids to produce as accurate a representation of the trigonotarbid flexing its limbs and walking as possible, presented in additional online supplemental data files. Knowledge of the limb articulations of trigonotarbid arachnids also allows us to discuss their functional morphology: trigonotarbids' limbs and gait were likely comparable to extant cursorial spiders, but lacked some innovations seen in more derived arachnids.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-09-26
    Description: The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-17
    Description: This paper outlines the suite of advanced multi-scalar techniques currently available in the toolkit of the modern Proterozoic palaeobiologist. These include non-intrusive and non-destructive optical, laser and X-ray techniques, plus more destructive ion beam and electron beam methods. Together, these provide morphological, mineralogical and biochemical data at flexible spatial scales from that of an individual atom to the largest Proterozoic microfossils. An overview is given of each technique and a case study from the exceptionally well-preserved Torridonian biota of NW Scotland is presented. This microfossil assemblage was first recognized over a century ago, but its great diversity and evolutionary importance has only recently come to light, due in no small part to the research efforts of Martin Brasier.
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-03-25
    Description: Complete metamorphosis evolved in insects towards the end of the Palaeozoic Era. A wide range of pupation strategies existed and numerous biosedimentary structures associated with these have been described. The fossil record of endogenous materials associated with pupation, e.g. cocoons, is more limited. Here we report six amber-coloured specimens from the earliest Cretaceous of southern England that were tentatively identified on collection as insect cocoons. These were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, stereomicroscopy and X-ray microtomography to elucidate their origin. The interpretation of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry data was inconclusive because the spectra showed some differences from those of amber. A seed pod origin seems likely for at least two of the objects based on their size, shape and the lineations on their surfaces. Three specimens are more cocoon-like based on their overall morphology and a fibrous surface texture. Although plant megaspore membranes have features analogous with these specimens and cannot be ruled out, the similarity to and variability found within insect cocoons, coupled with the range of potential insect architects present at the time of origin, make an insect origin more likely. We review a number of hymenopteran clades whose extant members construct comparable cocoons. The possible cocoons may have been resin-coated to protect the larva inside from predation, or they may have passively come into contact with resin prior to burial. Supplementary material: All TIFF computed tomography slices from the scan, the computed tomography log file, a surface model of the specimen and digital visualizations of both the whole specimen and the perforations are available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3704794
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-12
    Description: Whether the structure of ecological communities can exhibit stability over macroevolutionary timescales has long been debated. The similarity of independently evolved Anolis lizard communities on environmentally similar Greater Antillean islands supports the notion that community evolution is deterministic. However, a dearth of Caribbean Anolis fossils—only three have been described to...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: It has become accepted in recent years that the fossil record can preserve labile tissues. We report here the highly detailed mineralization of soft tissues associated with a naturally occurring brain endocast of an iguanodontian dinosaur found in c. 133 Ma fluvial sediments of the Wealden at Bexhill, Sussex, UK. Moulding of the braincase wall and the mineral replacement of the adjacent brain tissues by phosphates and carbonates allowed the direct examination of petrified brain tissues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed preservation of the tough membranes (meninges) that enveloped and supported the brain proper. Collagen strands of the meningeal layers were preserved in collophane. The blood vessels, also preserved in collophane, were either lined by, or infilled with, microcrystalline siderite. The meninges were preserved in the hindbrain region and exhibit structural similarities with those of living archosaurs. Greater definition of the forebrain (cerebrum) than the hindbrain (cerebellar and medullary regions) is consistent with the anatomical and implied behavioural complexity previously described in iguanodontian-grade ornithopods. However, we caution that the observed proximity of probable cortical layers to the braincase walls probably resulted from the settling of brain tissues against the roof of the braincase after inversion of the skull during decay and burial. Supplementary material: Information regarding associated fossil material, and additional images, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3519984
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Description: A wide spectrum of tomographic techniques now exists for studying palaeontological specimens, but the suitability of these methods for assessing Earth's oldest prokaryotic life has not been comprehensively investigated. We evaluated the ability of X-ray computed tomography – specifically X-ray microtomography – to reveal the morphology and petrological context of Precambrian microfossils, pseudofossils and biosedimentary structures, all of which are important in the origin and early evolution of life of Earth. The materials tested came from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia (the 3.49 Ga Dresser Formation, the 3.46 Ga Apex chert and the 3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation) and the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation of Ontario, Canada. These units chart key developments in palaeobiology. The oldest formations contain profoundly controversial microfossil-like objects and microbially-induced sedimentary structures, whereas definitive prokaryotes are found in the youngest formations. We demonstrate that the imaging of individual microfossils and pseudofossils currently lies at the limits of the capabilities of laboratory-based X-ray microtomography and requires beneficial taphonomy. However, microtomography does provide a good overview of their petrological context at flexible spatial scales, although the quality of the data obtained from mesoscopic microbially-induced sedimentary structures and stromatolites depends largely on their style of preservation. Supplementary material: A zipped Drishti volume for all CT scans, a 0.7z split zip file of one Drishti volume and a HDMI supplementary movie showing digital visualizations for all of the scans are available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.58161
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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