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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A survey of the heavy metal content in a transplanted lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. was carried out in the region of an Israeli coal-fired power plant. Nickel, Cr, Cu, and Zn were analyzed in the lichen exposed to environmental influences for a period of 1 yr. The concentrations of metals were compared with the concentrations of the same metals measured in R. duriaei transplanted to the study area prior to the operation of the power plant. The results show that after the 1983–1984 period, the regional concentrations of Cr in the transplanted lichen thalli were found to be higher than in the lichen thalli transplanted to the same sites during the period February 1979-March 1980, prior to the operation of the coal-fired power plant. A regional decrease in Zn concentration in the lichen exposed during the latter period is probably linked to the decrease in the use of this metal as a constituent of foliar nutrients in agriculture. The regional increase of Cr in the 1983–1984 lichen material is probably connected with the operation of the Maor David coal-fired power plant located at Sharonim. A local increase in the Ni and Cr concentrations was found in the lichen transplanted to a nature reserve located north of the power station.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The content of eight heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd in the lichen Caloplaca aurantia growing on roof-tiles in urban, suburban and rural settlements in Israel has been evaluated. The data obtained and their statistical analysis indicated the following: (1) The content of all the above listed metals was generally higher in the lichen growing in ‘town’ than in ‘village’ areas; among these metals Ni and Zn were found most suitable for the distinction between ‘town’ and ‘village’ settlements. (2) Comparisons of the coefficient of variation of metal content values in ‘town’ versus ‘village’ furnished indications on the dispersion capacity of the metal particles. (3) Correlation analysis among the metals in ‘town’ and ‘village’ resulted in suggestive information on the emission sources. (4) Leaching tests indicated the tenacity of metal retainment and incorporation efficiency into the lichen tissue. Lichen species like C. aurantia, which grow both in ‘clean’ and metal contaminated areas are suggested as comparative monitors and for assessing periodical changes in metal output and concentrations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: lichens ; photoacoustic speetrometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photosynthetic parameters of the lichen Ramalina duriael were investigated in vivo, by the photoacoustic method using intensity—modulated exciting light (frequency range 5–300 Hz). The photoacoustic signal in intact lichens was similar in its general characteristics to that obtained from intact leaves of higher plants (Poulet et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 724, 433–446, 1983). It included two components interpreted to be due to modulated heat and modulated oxygen evolution. The quantum yield of the oxygen evolution component was maximal in the red spectral region and exhibited the ‘red drop’ decrease at wavelengths larger than 680 nm, similar to observations in higher plants. In contrast to those however, there was a pronounced decrease in this yield in the region below about 600 nm, indicating that pigments absorbing at shorter wavelengths are inefficient energy transfer agents. Similar results were observed for the quantum yield spectrum of photochemical energy storage. Analysis of oxygen diffusion in the symbiont alga, from the modulation frequency dependence of the ratio of oxygen evolution to photothermal signal component is consistent with an average diffusion path of about 4 μm, compared to a smaller, 1 μm, average diffusion path obtained in green leaves.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The amounts of six heavy metals, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni in the transplanted fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei, have been determined. The contents of these metals in the material exposed for 1 yr at the site which served as a source for the transplantation were found to be much lower than in the lichen transplanted close to busy roads and to places with other intensive human activities. Correlation coefficients between some pairs of the heavy metals found in the transplanted R. duriaei are closer to those previously found in Caloplaca aurantia from rural and suburban sites than to those from industrial sites in Tel-Aviv. All these heavy metals are expected in the emission from a coal-fired electric generating station to be located at the sea shore in the near future. We recommend that a program of monitoring for a power station at the proposed coastal site include routine determination of (a) the amounts of these metals in transplanted lichens, (b) the correlation between the amounts and the distance from the sea, and (c) the correlation between pairs of these metals at various locations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The impact of air pollution on the integrity of cell membranes and chlorophyll in the lichenRamalina duriaei was studied. The lichen was transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site in Israel to a highly polluted area for a period of 10 months. The seasonal variation of the percentages of Mg as detected with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) on/in the cortical cells of the lichen was compared with changes in the chlorophyll integrity as expressed by the ratio OD 435 nm/OD 415 nm. The rate of damage of air pollution to cell membranes in the lichen was compared with the increase of S as detected on the surface of the lichen thalli retrieved from industrial sites. The present study indicates that the electric conductivity parameter reflecting the integrity of lichen cell membranes was found to express the cellular damage caused to lichen thalli transplanted to a steel smelter and to oil refineries. Symptoms of damage to cell membranes are detectable inR. duriaei long before any indication of damage becomes apparent in the photobiont chlorophyll. Magnesium seems to represent a significant leakage from intracellular sites of the thallus. The accumulation of sulfur on/in the cortical cells ofR. duriaei indicates that the biomonitoring sites at the Haifa Bay are contaminated by SO2.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of industrial activity, we examined and compared the following parameters of physiological integrity in the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina lacera. (1) Potential quantum yield of PSII expressed as the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm. (2) Spectral reflectance expressed as values of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). (3) Production of ethylene. (4) Electrolyte leakage brought about by degrading cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. (5) The ratio A435nm/A415nm indicating the disintegration of chlorophyll. The amounts of Ba, Cu, K, Ni, S, V and Zn contained in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Some of the lichen-carrying twigs collected at a relatively unpolluted control site were resuspended on the original trees as controls. Other lichens were transplanted to 19 biomonitoring sites. Transplanted lichens in polluted sites contained higher amounts of Ba, Ni, S, V and Zn than lichens in the control site and in most of the rural sites upon an exposure period of 8 months. Statistical analysis revealed negative correlations between Fv/Fm ratios and Ba contents of transplants. High Ba, Cu, Ni and Zn contents correlated negatively with NDVI values. NDVI values correlated with A435nm/A415nm, Fv/Fm and K. The ratio A435nm/A415nm correlated positively with K and negatively with Ba, Cu and Zn. The production of ethylene correlated positively with Cu and Ba and negatively with A435nm/A415nm, Fv/Fm and NDVI. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with Ba, Cu, Na, S, V and Zn and negatively with NDVI. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transplants of R. lacera point to a high degree of contamination in the Haifa Bay region, which is polluted by fuel-oil combustion apart from other industrial activities. The present work suggests that in our specific study area, the most sensitive parameter to assess the vitality of the lichen thallus is electric conductivity whereas ethylene production is less sensitive.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science, Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 115 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To investigate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activity in the Negev Desert, we monitored the following in order to determine the physiological integrity of the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis: (1) production of ethylene; (2) potential quantum yield of photosystem II expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm; and (3) electrolyte leakage of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. The degree of pollution was assessed by measuring the amounts of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in the lichen thallus. Some of the lichen-carrying stones collected in the relatively unpolluted control site were relocated on the same hill, to test the possible impact of relocation. An additional amount of lichen-carrying stones was marked as controls. The greater part of the lichen-carrying stones was transferred to 10 biomonitoring sites in and around Ramat Hovav, an industrial area in the Negev Desert, Israel. Transplanted lichen in polluted sites contained higher amounts of mineral elements than lichens in the control site after an exposure period of 7 months. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlation of ethylene production and Ni content, negative correlation of Fv/Fm ratios and B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn, and positive correlation of electric conductivity and B, Mn, Ni and Sr. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transferred samples of R. maciformis point to a high degree of contamination in Ramat Hovav. The present study suggests that the lichen R. maciformis should be classified as a sensitive species endangered by anthropogenic activity in the desert. Furthermore, this lichen species is likely to be suitable as a bioindicator of pollution in other parts of the Negev Desert. Ethylene production and electric conductivity as parameters of lichen-vitality, indicated stress in 5 of the 12 biomonitoring sites (42%) and may therefore be considered as more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio, which indicated stress in 3 of the 12 sites (25%).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of oil-combustion pollutants and soil dust on a lichen, we examined the spectral reflectance of thalli of the epiphytic fruticose lichen, Ramalina duriaei, expressed as values of NDVI (the normalized difference vegetation index). We analyzed electrolyte leakage caused by degradation of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity of water, apart from chlorophyll degradation, the latter expressed as changes in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio to indicate the physiological status of the lichen. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, P, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Thalli of R. duriaei, growing in a nature reserve on the periphery of a 40-year-old industrial town, Ashdod, in southwest Israel were compared with thalli of R. duriaei from an unpolluted forest in the northeastern part of the country transplanted to the polluted areas in and around the town. After an exposure for 10 months, many transplants exhibited lower NDVI values, higher electric conductivity values as well as a lower A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. The three physical/physiological parameters thus reflected severe injury in the lichen transplants. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants were found to correlate inversely with the NDVI values, whereas the concentrations of Fe, Ni, Ti and V were found to correlate with electric conductivity. The decrease in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio was found to correlate with high concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants, whereas the concentration of K and P correlated with both the NDVI value and the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. It is concluded that in situ thalli of R. duriaei, the only indigenous fruticose lichen growing in the region of Ashdod, are endangered by the presence of pollutants and by acid rain due to the combustion of heavy fuel oil.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1982-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0031-0182
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-616X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1982-03-01
    Print ISSN: 0031-0182
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-616X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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