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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Near infrared images are presented of the Herbig-Haro 110 jet centered at the molecular hydrogen lines. The ratio of these lines provides a preliminary diagnostic of molecular gas excitation, which is expected from low velocity shocks and turbulent processes. It is suggested that the morphological properties of the molecular hydrogen emission are consistent with that of a boundary layer.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: SS Cygni and HL Canis majoris were observed by IUE for three consecutive nights in November of 1992. During the first two nights, simultaneous photometric ground-based observations of SS Cyg were made at the Ball State University Observatory. Observations of SS Cyg and HL CMa were also obtained simultaneously with the 90-inch telescope at the Steward Observatory on the last two nights of the IUE run. These spectroscopic observations covered the wavelength range from 4100 to 5000 A, while the spectra taken with the short wavelength camera on IUE resulted in wavelength coverage from 1150 A to 1980 A. SS Cyg is a U Geminorum-type dwarf nova with an orbital period of 6.6 hr. Good simultaneous UV and optical orbital coverage was obtained for this system. HL CMa is a Z Camelopardalis-type dwarf nova with a mean outburst interval of 15 days. The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) reports that this system was in outburst 4 days after the observing run. Therefore, HL CMa may have been in a preoutburst state during these observations. Optical spectra of HL CMa indicate a warm front passed through the outer disk four days before outburst, but no changes were seen in the UV spectra. Signs of a preoutburst state were observed to develop in SS Cyg, but no outburst occurred for another 30 days.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280); 106; 702; p. 858-868
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiments (PRA) have produced the finest set of Jovian decametric radio emission data ever obtained. Jovian decametric L-burst and S-burst arcs were characterized and the data reconciled with models for the radio emission geometry and mechanisms. The first major results involve comparisons of the distribution of arc separations with longitudes. The identification and analyses of systematic variations in the PRA data have yielded interesting results, but only the most obvious features of the data were examined. Analyses of the PRA data were extended with the use of new 6-Sec formats that are more sensitive to the S-bursts.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-174206 , NAS 1.26:174206
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present a series of molecular hydrogen images of the Herbig-Haro 1-2 system in the 1-0 S(1) transition at 2.121 microns, with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 sec. The distribution of H2 is then compared with that of the excitation, given by the (S II) 6717+6731 to H-alpha line ratio. We find that most optical condensations in the HH 1-2 system, including the VLA 1 jet, have H2 counterparts. H2 emission is detected in most low excitation knots, as expected for low velocity shocks (50 km/s less than), but also in high excitation regions, like in HH 1F and HH 2A min. For these latter objects, the H2 emission could be due to the interaction of the preionizing flux, produced by 150-200 km/s shocks, with the surrounding interstellar matter, i.e., fluorescence. The lack fluorescent lines in the ultraviolet (UV), however, suggest a different mechanism. H2 is detected at the tip of the VLA 1 jet, where the knot morphology suggests the presence of a second bow shock. H2 is detected also SE of HH 2E and SW of HH 1F, in regions with known NH3 emission.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: The Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 108; 4; p. 1432-1436
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: When a massive star explodes as a supernova, substantial amounts of radioactive elements-primarily Ni-56, Ni-57 and Ti-44 are produced. After the initial from shock heating, the light emitted by the supernova is due to the decay of these elements. However, after decades, the energy powering a supernova remnant comes from the shock interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding medium. The transition to this phase has hitherto not been observed: supernovae occur too infrequently in the Milky Way to provide a young example, and extragalactic supernovae are generally too faint and too small. Here we report observations that show this transition in the supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellan Cloud. From 1994 to 200l, the ejecta faded owing to radioactive decay of Ti-44 as predicted. Then the flux started to increase, more than doubling by the end of 2009. We show that this increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejects, enabling us to analyse the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: GSFC.JA.4738.2011 , Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 474; 484-486
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-18
    Description: We used the Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy catalogue and Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II supernovae data with redshifts measured by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to identify 48 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) residing in rich galaxy clusters and compare their properties with 1015 SNe Ia in the field. Their light curves were parametrized by the SALT2 model and the significance of the observed differences was assessed by a resampling technique. To test our samples and methods, we first looked for known differences between SNe Ia residing in active and passive galaxies. We confirm that passive galaxies host SNe Ia with smaller stretch, weaker colour–luminosity relation [β of 2.54(22) against 3.35(14)], and that are ~0.1 mag more luminous after stretch and colour corrections. We show that only 0.02 per cent of random samples drawn from our set of SNe Ia in active galaxies can reach these values. Reported differences in the Hubble residuals scatter could not be detected, possibly due to the exclusion of outliers. We then show that, while most field and cluster SNe Ia properties are compatible at the current level, their stretch distributions are different (~3): besides having a higher concentration of passive galaxies than the field, the cluster's passive galaxies host SNe Ia with an average stretch even smaller than those in field passive galaxies (at 95 per cent confidence). We argue that the older age of passive galaxies in clusters is responsible for this effect since, as we show, old passive galaxies host SNe Ia with smaller stretch than young passive galaxies (~4).
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-10
    Description: A series of optical and one near-infrared nebular spectra covering the first year of the Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe are presented and modelled. The density profile that proved best for the early optical/ultraviolet spectra, ‘-11fe’, was extended to lower velocities to include the regions that emit at nebular epochs. Model -11fe is intermediate between the fast deflagration model W7 and a low-energy delayed-detonation. Good fits to the nebular spectra are obtained if the innermost ejecta are dominated by neutron-rich, stable Fe-group species, which contribute to cooling but not to heating. The correct thermal balance can thus be reached for the strongest [Fe  ii ] and [Fe  iii ] lines to be reproduced with the observed ratio. The 56 Ni mass thus obtained is ~0.47 ± 0.05 M . The bulk of 56 Ni has an outermost velocity of ~8500 km s –1 . The mass of stable iron is ~0.23 ± 0.03 M . Stable Ni has low abundance, ~10 –2 M . This is sufficient to reproduce an observed emission line near 7400 Å. A sub-Chandrasekhar explosion model with mass 1.02 M and no central stable Fe does not reproduce the observed line ratios. A mock model where neutron-rich Fe-group species are located above 56 Ni following recent suggestions is also shown to yield spectra that are less compatible with the observations. The densities and abundances in the inner layers obtained from the nebular analysis, combined with those of the outer layers previously obtained, are used to compute a synthetic bolometric light curve, which compares favourably with the light curve of SN 2011fe.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] When massive stars exhaust their fuel, they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powers an even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-duration γ-ray burst. One would then ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Near Infrared spectroscopic observations (1.2–2.4µm) of two condensations (HH 1A & HH 1G) of Herbig-Haro object 1 are used to explore the nature of its molecular shocks and extinction. The H2 emission lines display a more complex behaviour than that accounted for C or J type shock models. The extinction, determined from the ratio of [Fe II] 1.257 & 1.644µm, is higher than what is expected from optical [S II] measurements, and it may indicate real discrepancies between the optical and IR regions of the ISM extinction curve.
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