Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract An integrated programme of pheromone-mediated mating disruption using Isomate-C®, post-harvest removal of fruit, and trapping overwintering larvae with cardboard tree bands, was used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in four commercial ‘organic’ apple orchards in Cawston, British Columbia during 1989–1992. One application of 1000 dispensers − 1 on May 1 delivered estimated seasonal totals of 16.6, 16.5 and 19.9 g of E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol [=codlemone] − 1in 1990, 1991 and 1992, respectively, at median rates of 8.4, 8.3, and 13.3 mg · 〈 ha−1 · ha−1 during dusk flight periods of first brood and 5.3, 4.7 and 4.6 mg · − 1· ha−1 in second brood, respectively. Over this 3-year period damage from codling moth at harvest ranged from 0.08 to 2.4%, and averaged 60.7% in these four organic orchards, while damage in five conventional orchards receiving sprays of azinphosmethyl ranged from 0.02 to 1.85%, and averaged 0.5%. Damage in an experimental orchard that was banded only, ranged from 43.5 to 56.7%, and averaged 48.9%. Between 1990 and 1992 cumulative male catches in Pherocon 1-CP wing traps baited with 10 mg of codlemone declined by 52% and densities of overwintering codling moth larvae declined an average of 49.5% in all organic orchards. Overwintering populations in the banded experimental orchard showed an increase of 57.7% during this study period. We conclude that an integrated programme of pheromone-mediated mating disruption, post-harvest fruit removal and tree banding, controls codling moth effectively enough to make organic apple production viable in British Columbia.
Type of Medium: