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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Several cases of transporation and deposition of settling particles following dust storms over Israel, occurring between 1973 and 1987, were experimentally investigated. The storm particles were collected in Jerusalem and Ramat Hasharon, north of Tel Aviv. Meteorological conditions during the storms were examined and classified according to their trajectories into two types: (a) North African and (b) Arabian Desert. The North African type is by far the most common. In the present work, the concentrations of 26 elements (Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cl, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Si, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, and Yb) in settling particles were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The validity of the method was checked by analyzing U.S. NBS Standard Reference Material SRM-1633a; the elemental content found agreed well with the published certified data. Since Al as well as Si were determined through the reactions27Al(n, γ)28Al(2.24 min) and28Si(n, p)28Al, respectively, thermal and epithermal neutron activation was applied in order to determine the contribution of silicon to the total28Al activity. Interpretation of the chemical analyses using Enrichment Factors reveals that settling particles are relatively enriched in Ca probably from the local terrain and in Cl derived from the Mediterranean Sea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 35 (1987), S. 357-372 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Pollution episodes of three distinct types were detected at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, which is a 300 m instrumented tower located in a rural area 25 km north of Denver and 20 km east of Boulder. Under stably stratified atmospheric conditions, usually at night or early morning, both power-plant-derived and general urban plumes were sampled. The powerplant plumes were characterized by SO2 concentrations of 30 to 50 ppb in the plume centers, NO2 maxima of 20 to 40 ppb on the plume edges, NO maxima of as much as 50 ppb in the plume centers, and the absence of O3 from the plume centers. Light scattering (b scat), principally due to coarse particles, was typically enhanced by 20 to 40%, relative to nominally clean air. The urban plumes typically contained NO2 uniformly distributed throughout the affected air mass at 20 to 30 ppb, no detectable NO or SO2, and O3 present at concentrations less than half that in background air; b scat was typically increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A third type of pollution episode, containing greatly increased concentrations of condensation nuclei, was observed during days when surface heating had apparently stimulated biological particle production. At these times the usual indicators of anthropogenic pollution were absent.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Nitrate-containing aerosols, collected on Nuclepore filters and electron microscope screens, precoated with nitron, cause characteristic reaction patterns that can be identified by scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM). Interfacing the STEM with an X-ray energy analyzer and selected area electron diffraction permits the simultaneous detection of elements of atomic number larger than 11 and of minerals in individual aerosols. In an application of this technique to aerosols collected at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and at Tel Aviv University, the aerosols were found associated with wet crustal particles. They were found as minerals and air pollution aerosols containing one or a combination of several elements. The precoated electron microscope screens, permitted elemental analysis of individual micrometer-size particles providing new information on the characterization of aerosols mainly the presence of water that can not be obtained by bulk analysis commonly employed in the study of nitrates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The elements V and Ni were determined in dustfall (settling particles), airborne dust and in soils at various points in the greater Tel-Aviv area between the years 1973 and 1984. Good correlations were found between measured distribution patterns for V and Ni in dustfall during the summer months and those predicted for settling particles from the Tel-Aviv power station (which burns heavy fuel oil) using a meteorological model based on diffusion from an elevated point source. The distribution patterns for V and Ni in dustfall collected in the Tel-Aviv area were very similar to those previously measured for SO2 and total S compounds. The concentration of V and Ni in soils also conforms to a pattern that points to the power station as a major source of these metals. It is suggested that V and Ni may be used as tracers for measuring the distribution of pollution from oil fired power stations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Monthly dustfall samples collected in 16 sites in the Tel-Aviv urban areas, as well as those collected in 10 rural sites in Israel during several years of measurements, were analyzed for their physical properties and chemical content. Although dustfall measurements represent a very simple and crude technique the analysis of the data provides some very interesting conclusions: (a) The southwest part of Israel, which is scarcely populated, suffers from high dustfall values due to dust storm blowing from the Sahara and other arid lands to the east Mediterranean during the spring. (b) On an annual basis the natural dustfall of dust storms origin amounts to 25 to 30% of the Tel-Aviv residential area deposition or 3 to 4 tonne km−2 mo−1. (c) Mapping of dustfall data within an urban region reflects fairly well the main industrial and commercial activities within the city. (d) In residential areas the inorganic water insoluble fraction of the dust is contributed by natural sources, while the organic fraction is mostly of anthropogenic origin. The inorganic water soluble fraction is spread in a uniform pattern within the city.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: clays ; dust ; dustfall-flux ; Israel ; Kinneret ; mineralogy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The dustfall around Lake Kinneret (LK), northernIsrael was collected monthly for four and a half years, January 1993–May 1997. The inorganic waterinsoluble portions were found to be composed mainlyof four non-clay minerals: quartz, feldspars, calciteand dolomite. The principal clay minerals, about 10%of the IWI, were palygorskite, kaolinite, illite andsmectite. A seasonal non-clay mineral distributionvariation was noticed, being richer in quartz in thewinter and richer in carbonates, especially calcite,in the summer. During dust storm episodes the amountof quartz (and also feldspar) in the dustfallincreased markedly. Near basalt and volcanic tuffquarries, the predominant minerals are of the feldspargroup. The origin of the quartz was found to be longrange transport, whilst the other minerals are mainlyof intermediate and local origin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 217 (1968), S. 1139-1140 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Thirty-five samples of dew were collected during the rainless months July to October 1967. In twenty-one of these the amount exceeded 150 ml. (equivalent to more than 0-15 mm of dew per night), which sufficed for a complete chemical analysis (including Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ol, SO4, HCO3, £〉H and ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986), S. 389-390 
    ISSN: 0304-3991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The areal distribution of monthly mean values of the Discomfort Index (DI) in Israel is presented for key hours of the day for the summer half of the year. The DI as used in this study, is defined as the arithmetic average of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature (°C), a value of 24 representing conditions at which half the people would feel uncomfortable. Data were collected from 95 meteorological stations situated in different parts of Israel. The raw data consisted of daily values of dry and wet-bulb temperatures for the hours 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00h for the years 1963–1972. Maximum values of the monthly mean DI in Israel generally occur in August. Geographically, the number of days of the year with DI greater than 24 ranges from 30 in the mountain regions, to 120 in the coastal plain, to 180 in the Jordan Valley, Dead Sea, and Arava regions. The dominant control of the observed distribution of DI in Israel appears to be topography. The DI is not a good measure of human discomfort for particularly hot and dry conditions, typical of those occurring during Sharav weather conditions. For such conditions, a new index was developed based on the difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. The mean areal distributions of this difference index as well as that of the DI are presented for typical intense Sharav conditions. The new difference index appears to better represent discomfort during such conditions.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: To assess the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on the physics and chemistry of clouds in the northeastern United States, aerosol and cloud-drop size distributions, elemental composition of aerosols as a function of size, and ionic content of cloud water were measured on Whiteface Mountain, NY, during the summers of 1981 and 1982. In several case studies, the data were cross-correlated with different air mass types - background continental, polluted continental, and maritime - that were advected to the sampling site. The results are the following: (1) Anthropogenic sources hundreds of kilometers upwind cause the small-particle (accumulation) mode number to increase from hundreds of thousands per cubic centimeter and the mass loading to increase from a few to several tens of micrograms per cubic meter, mostly in the form of sulfur aerosols. (2) A significant fraction of anthropogenic sulfur appears to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to affect the cloud drop concentration. (3) Clouds in Atlantic maritime air masses have cloud drop spectra that are markedly different from those measured in continental clouds. The drop concentration is significantly lower, and the drop size spectra are heavily skewed toward large drops. (4) Effects of anthropogenic pollutants on cloud water ionic composition are an increase of nitrate by a factor of 50, an increase of sulfate by more than one order of magnitude, and an increase of ammonium ion by a factor of 7. The net effect of the changes in ionic concentrations is an increase in cloud water acidity. An anion deficit even in maritime clouds suggests an unknown, possibly biogenic, source that could be responsible for a pH below neutral, which is frequently observed in nonpolluted clouds.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0733-3021); 25; 1908-191
    Format: text
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