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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171842 , E85-10081 , LARS-TR-111284 , NAS 1.26:171842
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a LANDSAT MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95% of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50% of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73% of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171822 , NAS 1.26:171822 , LARS-TR-062984 , E85-10041
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Reflectance factor data were acquired with a Landsat band radiometer throughout two growing seasons for corn (Zea mays L.) canopies differing in planting dates, populations, and soil types. Agronomic data collected included leaf area index (LAI), biomass, development stage, and final grain yields. The spectral variable, greenness, was associated with 78 percent of the variation in LAI over all treatments. Single observations of LAI or greenness have limited value in predicting corn yields. The proportions of solar radiation intercepted (SRI) by these canopies were estimated using either measured LAI or greenness. Both SRI estimates, when accumulated over the growing season, accounted for approximately 65 percent of the variation in yields. Models which simulated the daily effects of weather and intercepted solar radiation on growth had the highest correlations to grain yields. This concept of estimating intercepted solar radiation using spectral data represents a viable approach for merging spectral and meteorological data for crop yield models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:169032 , LARS-030182 , NASA-CR-167643 , E82-10003 , SR-P2-04236
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a Landsat MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95 percent of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50 percent of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73 percent of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 17; 221-232
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Attention is given to the development of methods for combining spectral and meteorological data in crop yield models which are capable of providing accurate estimates of crop condition and yields throughout the growing season. The present investigation is concerned with initial tests of these concepts using spectral and agronomic data acquired in controlled experiments. The data were acquired at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm, 10 km northwest of West Lafayette, Indiana. Data were obtained throughout several growing seasons for corn and soybeans. Five methods or models for predicting yields were examined. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that estimating intercepted solar radiation using spectral data is a viable approach for merging spectral and meteorological data in crop yield models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: A vegetation index and radiative surface temperature were derived from NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for the Seattle, WA region from 28 June through 4 July 1991. The vegetation index and surface temperature values were computed for locations of weather observation stations within the region and compared to observed minimum air temperatures. These comparisons were used to evaluate the use of AVHRR data to assess the influence of the urban environment on observed minimum air temperatures (the urban heat island effect). AVHRR derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and radiant surface temperature data from a one week composite product were both related significantly to observed minimum temperatures, however, the vegetation index accounted for a greater amount of the spatial variation observed in mean minimum temperatures. The difference in the NDVI between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (i.e., evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for differences in urban and rural minimum temperatures.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 11; p. 2223-2230.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of a satellite-derived vegetation index and surface temperature estimates for the assessment of the difference in urban and rural air temperature due to the urban heat island effect. The difference in the ND (normalized difference) index between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for the urban heat island effect. The use of the approach proposed here may provide a globally consistent method for assessing this phenomenon.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 32; 5; p. 899-908.
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  • 8
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