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  • 1
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(296)
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 198 S.
    ISBN: 9781862392502
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 296
    Classification: A.3.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: The morphology of Earth's surface reflects the interaction of climate, tectonics and denudational processes operating over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. These processes can be considered catastrophic or continuous; depending on the timescale of observation or interest. Recent research had required integration of historically distinct subjects such as geomorphology, sedimentology, climatology and tectonics. Together, these have provided new insights into absolute and relative rates of denudation, and the factors that control the many dynamic processes involved. Specific subject areas covered are sediment transport processes and the timescales of competing processes, the role of the geological record and landscapes in constraining different processes, the nature of landscape evolution at different spatial scales and in contrasting geological environments.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 198 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862392502
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 358 (1992), S. 57-59 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Some continental flood basalt (CFB) magma types in the Indian Deccan Traps are similar to those erupted recently on the island of Reunion, and so there are close geochemical and spatial links between the Deccan CFB and the Reunion hotspot, and an asthenospheric source is widely accepted. But the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An inversion technique to reconstruct the heat flow history of a sedimentary basin from downhole geochemical (or thermal indicator) data is presented. The method has been successfully applied to other geophysical inverse problems and attempts to bound a property of the model. This contrasts with the more common approach of merely finding a model which can predict the data, which is less meaningful for underdetermined problems. In this particular application we seek the smoothest model that can predict the observed data to within a given misfit value. This stabilizes the highly non-linear inversion problem and suppresses the generation of complexities in the heat flow history which are unwarranted by the data. Both first and second derivative smoothing constraints are considered, and the differences between the resulting models allows an assessment of the resolution of the heat flow history. Examples are given using synthetic vitrinite reflectance, sterane and hopane isomerization and sterane aromatization data. Our synthetic inversions indicate that for models with accurate thermal parameters, burial history, and thermal indicator predictive models, the heat flow generally cannot be well resolved back past the timing of maximum temperatures, which in many cases is likely to be the present day. The ability of a particular data type to resolve heat flow back in time depends on the effective kinetic parameters which control the rate of reaction as a function of temperature. When realistic uncertainties in the burial history, present-day heat flow and kinetic parameters are considered, false structure may be introduced into the heat flow history and the inversion generated heat flow models can show significant differences from different data types. The algorithm has the benefit of highlighting the degree of non-uniqueness in the problem and provides an efficient way of generating heat flow models which contain the minimum amount of variation necessary to satisfy the observations, thereby reducing the risk of overinterpreting the data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: The thermal and denudational history of Ireland is evaluated using an extensive new apatite fission-track (AFT) dataset derived from surface samples. Modelled thermal histories are used to construct maps of denudation for a number of time slices from Triassic time to 10 Ma using a time-dependent palaeogeotherm. The maps illustrate the spatial variability of denudation and subsidence within each time slice. The patterns of denudation are complex, showing considerable variability at the length scale of 101-102 km, with especially high denudation rates found over known igneous centres such as the Mournes of County Down. Based on the onshore AFT data alone, there is no definitive signature of an Irish Sea Dome extending significantly across Ireland in Early Tertiary time. The cumulative amount of denudation during Tertiary time varies depending on the AFT annealing model used, but is generally in the region between 1 and 2 km and without clear spatial trends. High amounts of denudation have been mapped over the Tertiary intrusions in County Down, reflecting their unroofing since emplacement in Paleocene time. The cumulative denudation from Triassic time to 10 Ma shows relatively low amounts of denudation (〈2 km) in the Irish Midlands and the extreme NE of the island, consistent with the observation that Mesozoic-Tertiary sediments and igneous products are preserved in the Ulster Basin. The western flank of Ireland and the region between Dublin and County Down show high cumulative amounts of denudation (〈4 km), the latter being consistent with the high amounts of denudation interpreted for the Irish Sea region. This denudation pattern explains in part the outcrop of Precambrian and Lower Palaeozoic rocks in these areas. The spatial integration of the denudation over the entire landmass gives the average denudation rate and the sediment discharge from Ireland as a function of time. Average denudation rates are moderately high in Triassic time, falling to low values in Cretaceous time, and increasing substantially in Tertiary time. However, the total volumetric discharge of sediment in Tertiary time is an order of magnitude smaller than the preserved solid volume of Tertiary sediment in the basins offshore western Ireland.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: The Cenozoic development of the North Atlantic province has been dramatically influenced by the behaviour of the Iceland Plume, whose striking dominance is manifest by long-wavelength free-air gravity anomalies and by oceanic bathymetric anomalies. Here, we use these anomalies to estimate the amplitude and wavelength of present-day dynamic uplift associated with this plume. Maximum dynamic support in the North Atlantic is 1.5-2 km at Iceland itself. Most of Greenland is currently experiencing dynamic support of 0.5-1 km, whereas the NW European shelf is generally supported by 〈0.5 km. The proto-Iceland Plume had an equally dramatic effect on the Early Cenozoic palaeogeography of the North Atlantic margins, as we illustrate with a study of plume-related uplift, denudation and sedimentation on the continental shelf encompassing Britain and Ireland. We infer that during Paleocene time a hot subvertical sheet of asthenosphere welled up beneath an axis running from the Faroes through the Irish Sea towards Lundy, generating a welt of magmatic underplating of the crust which is known to exist beneath this axis. Transient and permanent uplift associated with this magmatic injection caused regional denudation, and consequently large amounts of clastic sediment have been shed into surrounding basins during Cenozoic time. Mass balance calculations indicate agreement between the volume of denuded material and the volume of Cenozoic sediments deposited offshore in the northern North Sea Basin and the Rockall Trough. The volume of material denuded from Britain and Ireland is probably insufficient to account for the sediment in the Faroe-Shetland Basin and an excess of sediment has been supplied to the Porcupine Basin. We emphasize the value of combining observations from both oceanic and continental realms to elucidate the evolution of the Iceland Plume through space and time.
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  • 7
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 296: 1-5.
    Publication Date: 2008-02-29
    Description: Debate about the relative roles of catastrophic v. continuous processes of landform evolution is as old as the discipline of Earth Science itself. Over the last 10 years or so, research in the Earth Sciences has focussed strongly on the Earth's surface and particularly in terms of quantifying rates of processes. This research parallels developments in geomorphology and sedimentology in the quantification of surface processes since the 1950s and 1960s. These surface processes are the manifestation of the large-scale interaction of climate and tectonics operating over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Thus, recent research had required integration of the historically distinct subjects of geomorphology, sedimentology, climatology and tectonics. Partly as a cause and partly as a consequence of this integration, there have been many recent developments in quantitative modelling and both laboratory and field-based analytical tools. Together, these have provided new insights into absolute and relative rates of denudation, and the factors that control the many dynamic processes involved. One of the outstanding issues concerns the balance between tectonics, climate and denudation, and in particular the limiting effects of one on the others and the nature of dynamic feedback mechanisms. The fact that processes can be considered catastrophic or continuous, depending on the timescale of observation or interest, can hinder the predictability of models, depending on how they are formulated. Certain conditions may lead to a steady-state situation in which denudation balances tectonic uplift, leading to a more or less constant topography. Steady-state topography means that detailed study of present day landforms can provide important insights into the nature of surface processes back in time. Such assumptions underpin debates in geomorphology relating to the process-form linkage and the understanding of characteristic forms in the landscape. Alternatively, the recognition of non-steady-state situations and a clearer understanding of why ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0084-6597
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Fission track analysis as a geological dating tool was first proposed in the early 1960s. The past 10 years has seen a major expansion in application to more general geological problems. This reflects advances in understanding the temperature dependence of fission track annealing and of the information contained in fission track length distributions. Fission track analysis provides detailed information on the low-temperature thermal histories of rocks, below ~120oC for tracks in apatite and below ~350oC for zircon. Fission track analysis has been applied to a variety of geological problems, including sedimentary provenance, thermal history modeling of sedimentary basins, structural evolution of orogenic belts, and long-term continental denudation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1993-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-01
    Description: A new inverse numerical modeling method is used to constrain the environmental parameters (e.g., relative-sea-level, sediment-supply, and wave climate histories) that control stratigraphic architecture in wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits. The method links a "process-response" forward stratigraphic model that simulates wave and storm processes (BARSIM) to a combination of inverse methods formulated in a Bayesian framework that allows full characterization of uncertainties. This method is applied for the first time to a real geologic dataset, collected at outcrop from two shoreface-shelf parasequences in the Aberdeen Member, Blackhawk Formation of the Book Cliffs, east-central Utah, USA. The environmental parameters that controlled the observed stratigraphic architecture are quantified, and key aspects of stratigraphic architecture are successfully predicted from limited data. Stratigraphic architecture at parasequence-stacking and intra-parasequence scales was driven principally by relative sea level (varying by up to about 55 m) and sediment supply (varying by up to 70 m2/yr), whose interplay determines the shoreline trajectory. Within zones of distinctive shoreline trajectory, variations in wave climate (of up to about 3 m in fairweather-wave height) controlled superimposed variations in sandstone and shale content (e.g., the development of upward-coarsening and upward-fining bedsets). The modeling results closely match the observed stratigraphic architecture, but their quality is limited by: (1) the formulation and assumptions of the forward-modeling algorithms, and (2) the observed data distribution and quality, which provide poor age constraint.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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