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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: During the last decade, the widely distributed shrublands in northern China have shown significant signs of recovery from desertification, the result of widespread conservation practices. However, to support the current efforts in conservation, more knowledge is needed on surface energy partitioning and its biophysical controls. Using eddy-covariance measurements made over a semi-arid shrubland in northwest China in 2012, we examined how surface energy-balance components vary on diurnal and seasonal scales, and how biophysical factors control bulk surface parameters and energy exchange. Sensible heat flux ( H ) exceeded latent heat flux ( λE ) during most of the year, resulting in an annual Bowen ratio ( β , i.e. H / λE ) of 2.0. λE exceeded H only in mid-summer when frequent rainfall co-occurred with the seasonal peak in leaf area index ( LAI ). Evapotranspiration reached a daily maximum of 3.3 mm day −1 , and summed to 283 mm yr −1 . The evaporative fraction ( EF , i.e. λE / R n ), Priestley-Taylor coefficient ( α ), surface conductance ( g s ) and decoupling coefficient ( Ω ) were all positively correlated with soil water content ( SWC ) and LAI . The direct enhancement of λE by high vapor pressure deficit ( VPD ) was buffered by a concurrent suppression of g s . The g s played a direct role in controlling EF and α by mediating the effects of LAI , SWC and VPD . Our results highlight the importance of adaptive plant responses to water scarcity in regulating ecosystem energy partitioning, and suggest an important role for revegetation in the reversal of desertification in semi-arid areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-07-24
    Description: Reciprocal positive regulation between Cx26 and PI3K/Akt pathway confers acquired gefitinib resistance in NSCLC cells via GJIC-independent induction of EMT Cell Death and Disease 6, e1829 (July 2015). doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.197 Authors: J Yang, G Qin, M Luo, J Chen, Q Zhang, L Li, L Pan & S Qin
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-01
    Description: Prediction of the shocks’ arrival times (SATs) at the Earth is very important for space weather forecast. There is a well-known SAT model, STOA, which is widely used in the space weather forecast. However, the shock transit time from STOA model usually has a relative large error compared to the real measurements. In addition, STOA tends to yield too much ‘yes’ prediction, which causes a large number of false alarms. Therefore, in this work, we work on the modification of STOA model. First, we give a new method to calculate the shock transit time by modifying the way to use the solar wind speed in STOA model. Second, we develop new criteria for deciding whether the shock will arrive at the Earth with the help of the sunspot numbers and the angle distances of the flare events. It is shown that our work can improve the SATs prediction significantly, especially the prediction of flare events without shocks arriving at the Earth.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-05-15
    Description: Tibetans have lived at very high altitudes for thousands of years, and they have a distinctive suite of physiological traits that enable them to tolerate environmental hypoxia. These phenotypes are clearly the result of adaptation to this environment, but their genetic basis remains unknown. We report genome-wide scans that reveal positive selection in several regions that contain genes whose products are likely involved in high-altitude adaptation. Positively selected haplotypes of EGLN1 and PPARA were significantly associated with the decreased hemoglobin phenotype that is unique to this highland population. Identification of these genes provides support for previously hypothesized mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation and illuminates the complexity of hypoxia-response pathways in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simonson, Tatum S -- Yang, Yingzhong -- Huff, Chad D -- Yun, Haixia -- Qin, Ga -- Witherspoon, David J -- Bai, Zhenzhong -- Lorenzo, Felipe R -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Jorde, Lynn B -- Prchal, Josef T -- Ge, RiLi -- 1P01CA108671-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK069513/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HL50077/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R00 HG005846/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Jul 2;329(5987):72-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1189406. Epub 2010 May 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466884" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Acclimatization ; *Altitude ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Ethnic Groups/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Human ; Haplotypes ; Hemoglobins/*analysis ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases ; Linear Models ; Male ; *Oxygen ; PPAR alpha/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/*genetics ; *Selection, Genetic ; Signal Transduction ; Tibet
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Ammonia nitrogen and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon from eight selected breeding families were evaluated at the concentration of 67.65 mg L−1 ammonia-N and reducing salinity from 15 to 0 ‰. The final survi...
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-01-15
    Description: A fundamental statement in diffusion theory is provided by the so-called theorem on reduced dimensionality . The latter theorem is saying that if the dimensionality of the turbulence is reduced, charged particles are tied to a single magnetic field line. If there is pitch-angle scattering and therewith parallel diffusion, this usually means that perpendicular transport is subdiffusive. Subdiffusive transport was found in numerous simulations for slab turbulence. However, it was unclear whether the theorem is valid for other models with reduced dimensionality such as the two-dimensional model. In the current paper, we simultaneously trace magnetic field lines and energetic particles and we compute the distance between the particle and the initial field line. We confirm the aforementioned theorem for slab turbulence but we cannot confirm it for two-dimensional turbulence. We also show that particles are not tied to field lines for two-component turbulence.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: Chemokines and their receptors regulate cell migration during development, immune system function, and in inflammatory diseases, making them important therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the structural basis of receptor:chemokine interaction is poorly understood. Adding to the complexity of the problem is the persistently dimeric behavior of receptors observed in cell-based studies, which...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-09-04
    Description: Golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus larvae were kept at 26, 29 and 33 °C for 15 days from 3-day post hatching (DPH) to 18 DPH to test temperature-dependent growth and jaw malformation. The growth, survival, jaw def...
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-15
    Description: Scheelite is well developed in hydrothermal deposits, providing a window into genetic processes and facilitating comparative studies, however, few studies have focused on characterizing scheelite in skarn-type W-Mo deposits. The primary ore mineral in the Jitoushan and Baizhangyan skarn-type W-Mo deposits (Anhui Province, Eastern China), scheelite was analyzed for major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) abundance and for Sr-Nd isotopes. The analysis revealed two unique geochemical characteristics that distinguish the scheelite from skarn-type W-Mo deposits to that from vein-type Au-W and porphyry-type W-Mo deposits: higher Mo content with a negative correlation between MoO 3 and WO 3 and a strong HREE depletion. Skarn-type scheelite mainly inherited REE signatures from ore-forming fluids, and the early precipitation of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet, diopside, and amphibole) has most likely resulted in the observed strong HREE depletion in scheelite and the decoupling of LREEs and HREEs. Of the numerous substitution mechanisms suggested by previous workers, 3Ca 2+ = 2REE 3+ + Ca (where Ca is a Ca-site vacancy) is preferred for the substitution of REE 3+ for Ca 2+ and in this study, particularly given the low salinity of ore fluids. As the scheelite Eu anomalies were inherited from ore-forming fluids with variable redox conditions and pH, the complex dEu/Mo correlation indicates that Mo increasingly entered the scheelite under oxidizing conditions and reached a maxim at dEu values of 0.8 to 1. In contrast, under reducing conditions, Mo contents in scheelite decrease gradually and Mo is precipitated as molybdenite as a result of the change in dominant valence state. Unlike the Sr-Nd isotope compositions of scheelite from vein-type Au-(W) and W-(Sb-Au) deposits, the scheelite from skarn-type W-Mo deposits has low ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd)(t) (most 〈0.5125) and intermediate ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)(t) values (most between 0.708 and 0.715). The eNd(t) values of the scheelite varied from –16 to –12.3 in the Baizhangyan deposit and from –9.5 to –9.1 in the Jitoushan deposit, indicating that the ore-forming materials in the two W-Mo deposits were mainly derived from crustal sources.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-03-19
    Description: [1]  We present an observation-based elemental Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) heavy nuclei spectra model, based on ACE/CRIS measurements. Then we extrapolate the spectra model to the lower energy range of ACE/SIS instrument. In addition, we compare the modeling results with both the CRIS and SIS measurements. The flux of lower energetic particles measured by SIS are despiked since there are Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. The good agreement between the modeling and the observation results, especially for the solar minimum, indicates the validity of our model in the energy range 30 MeV/nuc–500 MeV/nuc. Compared with two GCR radiation environment models, CRÈME96/Nymmik model and Badhwar & O'Neill model, our model can provide an improved fit to the GCRs spectra measured by ACE. Furthermore, our model is a phenomenological one, without consideration of the physical process during GCRs' propagating through the heliosphere. Therefore, it is more straight-forward and applicable in practice. Finally, the model can reproduce and predict the GCR spectra in the past and future, respectively, based on the strong correlation between the model parameters and solar activity indicated by sunspot number.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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