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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: The virulence mechanisms that allow pathogens to colonize the intestine remain unclear. Here, we show that germ-free animals are unable to eradicate Citrobacter rodentium, a model for human infections with attaching and effacing bacteria. Early in infection, virulence genes were expressed and required for pathogen growth in conventionally raised mice but not germ-free mice. Virulence gene expression was down-regulated during the late phase of infection, which led to relocation of the pathogen to the intestinal lumen where it was outcompeted by commensals. The ability of commensals to outcompete C. rodentium was determined, at least in part, by the capacity of the pathogen and commensals to grow on structurally similar carbohydrates. Thus, pathogen colonization is controlled by bacterial virulence and through competition with metabolically related commensals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439148/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439148/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kamada, Nobuhiko -- Kim, Yun-Gi -- Sham, Ho Pan -- Vallance, Bruce A -- Puente, Jose L -- Martens, Eric C -- Nunez, Gabriel -- DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK61707/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061707/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1325-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1222195. Epub 2012 May 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Load ; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Bacteroides/*growth & development ; Citrobacter rodentium/genetics/growth & development/immunology/*pathogenicity ; Enterobacteriaceae Infections/immunology/*microbiology ; Escherichia coli/*growth & development ; Feces/microbiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Germ-Free Life ; Intestinal Mucosa/*microbiology ; Intestines/*microbiology ; *Metagenome ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Microbial Interactions ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; Virulence Factors/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-02-21
    Description: The Caenorhabditis elegans survival gene ced-9 regulates ced-4 activity and inhibits cell death, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Through a genetic screen for CED-4-binding proteins, CED-9 was identified as an interacting partner of CED-4. CED-9, but not loss-of-function mutants, associated specifically with CED-4 in yeast or mammalian cells. The CED-9 protein localized primarily to intracellular membranes and the perinuclear region, whereas CED-4 was distributed in the cytosol. Expression of CED-9, but not a mutant lacking the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain, targeted CED-4 from the cytosol to intracellular membranes in mammalian cells. Thus, the actions of CED-4 and CED-9 are directly linked, which could provide the basis for the regulation of programmed cell death in C. elegans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, D -- Wallen, H D -- Nunez, G -- CA-64556/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32A107413-03/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Feb 21;275(5303):1126-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9027313" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*cytology/genetics ; *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Fractionation ; Cell Line ; Cytosol/chemistry ; Genes, Helminth ; Helminth Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Membranes/chemistry ; Mutation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; *Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 ; Transfection ; bcl-X Protein
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2005-02-05
    Description: The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection via the oral route but not through intravenous or peritoneal delivery. Nod2 is required for the expression of a subgroup of intestinal anti-microbial peptides, known as cryptdins. The Nod2 protein is thus a critical regulator of bacterial immunity within the intestine, providing a possible mechanism for Nod2 mutations in CD.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kobayashi, Koichi S -- Chamaillard, Mathias -- Ogura, Yasunori -- Henegariu, Octavian -- Inohara, Naohiro -- Nunez, Gabriel -- Flavell, Richard A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Feb 4;307(5710):731-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15692051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/*immunology ; Animals ; *Antibody Formation ; Female ; Gene Expression ; Gene Targeting ; Ileum/*immunology/microbiology ; *Immunity, Innate ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Immunoglobulins/biosynthesis ; Interleukins/biosynthesis ; Intestinal Diseases/immunology/microbiology ; Intestinal Mucosa/immunology/microbiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*physiology ; Ligands ; Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity ; Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development/immunology/isolation & purification ; Listeriosis/*immunology/microbiology ; Liver/microbiology ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/physiology ; Mice ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Protein Precursors/biosynthesis/genetics ; Receptors, Cell Surface/physiology ; Serum Albumin/immunology ; Signal Transduction ; Spleen/microbiology ; Toll-Like Receptors ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis ; alpha-Defensins/*biosynthesis/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340476/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340476/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franchi, Luigi -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01 DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 14;337(6100):1299-300. doi: 10.1126/science.1229010.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984056" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*immunology ; Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/enzymology/*immunology ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Mutation ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Kinase C-delta/*metabolism ; Serine/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Calcium hydroxide apexification and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) apexification are classical treatments for necrotic immature permanent teeth. The first tend to fail for lack of compliance given the high number of sessions needed; the second has technical difficulties such as material manipulation and overfilling. With both techniques, the root development is interrupted leaving the tooth with a fragile root structure, a poor crown-to-root ratio, periodontal breakdown, and high risk of fracture, compromising long-term prognosis of the tooth. New scientific literature has described a procedure that allows complete root development of these specific teeth. This regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) proposes the use of a combination of antimicrobials and irrigants, no canal walls instrumentation, induced apical bleeding to form a blood clot and a tight seal into the root canal to promote healing. MTA is the most used material to perform this seal, but updated guidelines advise the use of other bioactive endodontic cements that incorporate calcium and silicate in their compositions. They share most of their characteristics with MTA but claim to have fewer drawbacks with regards to manipulation and aesthetics. The purpose of the present article is to review pertinent literature and to describe the clinical procedures protocol with its variations, and their clinical application.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15-30% of children and approximately 5% of adults in industrialized countries. Although the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin-E immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction. Mast cells contribute to immunoglobulin-E-mediated allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis. Upon activation, mast cells release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of several molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and host defence. More than 90% of patients with atopic dermatitis are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbour the pathogen. Several staphylococcal exotoxins can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of atopic dermatitis. However, the role of these staphylococcal exotoxins in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent mast-cell degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified delta-toxin as the mast cell degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. Mast cell degranulation induced by delta-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase and calcium (Ca(2+)) influx; however, unlike that mediated by immunoglobulin-E crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase. In addition, immunoglobulin-E enhanced delta-toxin-induced mast cell degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from patients with atopic dermatitis produced large amounts of delta-toxin. Skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in delta-toxin, promoted immunoglobulin-E and interleukin-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of immunoglobulin-E production and dermatitis by delta-toxin was abrogated in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mast-cell-deficient mice and restored by mast cell reconstitution. These studies identify delta-toxin as a potent inducer of mast cell degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090780/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090780/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nakamura, Yuumi -- Oscherwitz, Jon -- Cease, Kemp B -- Chan, Susana M -- Munoz-Planillo, Raul -- Hasegawa, Mizuho -- Villaruz, Amer E -- Cheung, Gordon Y C -- McGavin, Martin J -- Travers, Jeffrey B -- Otto, Michael -- Inohara, Naohiro -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01 AR059688/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR059688/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HL062996/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):397-401. doi: 10.1038/nature12655. Epub 2013 Oct 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24172897" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Toxins/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Calcium Signaling/drug effects ; *Cell Degranulation/drug effects ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology/metabolism/*microbiology/pathology ; Female ; Immunoglobulin E/biosynthesis/immunology ; Inflammation/immunology/metabolism/microbiology/pathology ; Interleukin-4/immunology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Male ; Mast Cells/*cytology/drug effects ; Mice ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics/metabolism ; Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism/*pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that drive the activation of inflammatory caspases. So far, four inflammasomes involving NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 have been described that recruit the common adaptor protein ASC to activate caspase-1, leading to the secretion of mature IL-1beta and IL-18 proteins. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acquired inflammatory diseases as well as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) caused by inherited NLRP3 mutations. Potassium efflux is a common step that is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by many stimuli. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular mechanism leading to NLRP3 activation in response to potassium efflux remains unknown. Here we report the identification of NEK7, a member of the family of mammalian NIMA-related kinases (NEK proteins), as an NLRP3-binding protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to regulate NLRP3 oligomerization and activation. In the absence of NEK7, caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release were abrogated in response to signals that activate NLRP3, but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasomes. NLRP3-activating stimuli promoted the NLRP3-NEK7 interaction in a process that was dependent on potassium efflux. NLRP3 associated with the catalytic domain of NEK7, but the catalytic activity of NEK7 was shown to be dispensable for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated macrophages formed a high-molecular-mass NLRP3-NEK7 complex, which, along with ASC oligomerization and ASC speck formation, was abrogated in the absence of NEK7. NEK7 was required for macrophages containing the CAPS-associated NLRP3(R258W) activating mutation to activate caspase-1. Mouse chimaeras reconstituted with wild-type, Nek7(-/-) or Nlrp3(-/-) haematopoietic cells showed that NEK7 was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. These studies demonstrate that NEK7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉He, Yuan -- Zeng, Melody Y -- Yang, Dahai -- Motro, Benny -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01AI063331/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007517/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32DK094775/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007517/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):354-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16959. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. ; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814970" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Biocatalysis ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Catalytic Domain ; Cells, Cultured ; Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/genetics ; Enzyme Activation ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Interleukin-1beta/secretion ; Macrophages/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2010-04-30
    Description: The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is well established but the agent(s) that incite inflammation in the artery wall remain largely unknown. Germ-free animals are susceptible to atherosclerosis, suggesting that endogenous substances initiate the inflammation. Mature atherosclerotic lesions contain macroscopic deposits of cholesterol crystals in the necrotic core, but their appearance late in atherogenesis had been thought to disqualify them as primary inflammatory stimuli. However, using a new microscopic technique, we revealed that minute cholesterol crystals are present in early diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions and that their appearance in mice coincides with the first appearance of inflammatory cells. Other crystalline substances can induce inflammation by stimulating the caspase-1-activating NLRP3 (NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome, which results in cleavage and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines. Here we show that cholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in phagocytes in vitro in a process that involves phagolysosomal damage. Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, cholesterol crystals induce acute inflammation, which is impaired in mice deficient in components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, cathepsin B, cathepsin L or IL-1 molecules. Moreover, when mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were bone-marrow transplanted with NLRP3-deficient, ASC (also known as PYCARD)-deficient or IL-1alpha/beta-deficient bone marrow and fed on a high-cholesterol diet, they had markedly decreased early atherosclerosis and inflammasome-dependent IL-18 levels. Minimally modified LDL can lead to cholesterol crystallization concomitant with NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation in macrophages. Although there is the possibility that oxidized LDL activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo, our results demonstrate that crystalline cholesterol acts as an endogenous danger signal and its deposition in arteries or elsewhere is an early cause rather than a late consequence of inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946640/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946640/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duewell, Peter -- Kono, Hajime -- Rayner, Katey J -- Sirois, Cherilyn M -- Vladimer, Gregory -- Bauernfeind, Franz G -- Abela, George S -- Franchi, Luigi -- Nunez, Gabriel -- Schnurr, Max -- Espevik, Terje -- Lien, Egil -- Fitzgerald, Katherine A -- Rock, Kenneth L -- Moore, Kathryn J -- Wright, Samuel D -- Hornung, Veit -- Latz, Eicke -- R01 AI075318/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083713/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083713-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093262/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093262-01A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Apr 29;464(7293):1357-61. doi: 10.1038/nature08938.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428172" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Atherosclerosis/chemically induced/*metabolism/*pathology ; Bone Marrow Transplantation ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cathepsin B/metabolism ; Cathepsin L/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallization ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/deficiency ; Diet, Atherogenic ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/metabolism/pathology ; Interleukin-1/deficiency ; Interleukin-18/metabolism ; Lysosomes/drug effects/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Peritoneal Cavity/pathology ; Phagocytes/drug effects/pathology/physiology ; Receptors, LDL/deficiency ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1997-10-24
    Description: BAD is a distant member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death. Phosphorylation of BAD prevents this. BAD phosphorylation induced by interleukin-3 (IL-3) was inhibited by specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Akt, a survival-promoting serine-threonine protein kinase, was activated by IL-3 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. Active, but not inactive, forms of Akt were found to phosphorylate BAD in vivo and in vitro at the same residues that are phosphorylated in response to IL-3. Thus, the proapoptotic function of BAD is regulated by the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉del Peso, L -- Gonzalez-Garcia, M -- Page, C -- Herrera, R -- Nunez, G -- CA-64556/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 24;278(5338):687-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381178" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androstadienes/pharmacology ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Carrier Proteins/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chromones/pharmacology ; Enzyme Activation ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Humans ; Interleukin-3/*pharmacology ; Mice ; Morpholines/pharmacology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; bcl-Associated Death Protein ; bcl-X Protein
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-04
    Description: Organic Letters DOI: 10.1021/ol5029942
    Print ISSN: 1523-7060
    Electronic ISSN: 1523-7052
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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