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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-12-04
    Description: Organic Letters DOI: 10.1021/ol5029942
    Print ISSN: 1523-7060
    Electronic ISSN: 1523-7052
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15-30% of children and approximately 5% of adults in industrialized countries. Although the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin-E immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction. Mast cells contribute to immunoglobulin-E-mediated allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis. Upon activation, mast cells release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of several molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and host defence. More than 90% of patients with atopic dermatitis are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbour the pathogen. Several staphylococcal exotoxins can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of atopic dermatitis. However, the role of these staphylococcal exotoxins in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent mast-cell degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified delta-toxin as the mast cell degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. Mast cell degranulation induced by delta-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase and calcium (Ca(2+)) influx; however, unlike that mediated by immunoglobulin-E crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase. In addition, immunoglobulin-E enhanced delta-toxin-induced mast cell degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from patients with atopic dermatitis produced large amounts of delta-toxin. Skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in delta-toxin, promoted immunoglobulin-E and interleukin-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of immunoglobulin-E production and dermatitis by delta-toxin was abrogated in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mast-cell-deficient mice and restored by mast cell reconstitution. These studies identify delta-toxin as a potent inducer of mast cell degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090780/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090780/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nakamura, Yuumi -- Oscherwitz, Jon -- Cease, Kemp B -- Chan, Susana M -- Munoz-Planillo, Raul -- Hasegawa, Mizuho -- Villaruz, Amer E -- Cheung, Gordon Y C -- McGavin, Martin J -- Travers, Jeffrey B -- Otto, Michael -- Inohara, Naohiro -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01 AR059688/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR059688/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HL062996/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):397-401. doi: 10.1038/nature12655. Epub 2013 Oct 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24172897" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Toxins/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Calcium Signaling/drug effects ; *Cell Degranulation/drug effects ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology/metabolism/*microbiology/pathology ; Female ; Immunoglobulin E/biosynthesis/immunology ; Inflammation/immunology/metabolism/microbiology/pathology ; Interleukin-4/immunology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Male ; Mast Cells/*cytology/drug effects ; Mice ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics/metabolism ; Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism/*pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-04-30
    Description: The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is well established but the agent(s) that incite inflammation in the artery wall remain largely unknown. Germ-free animals are susceptible to atherosclerosis, suggesting that endogenous substances initiate the inflammation. Mature atherosclerotic lesions contain macroscopic deposits of cholesterol crystals in the necrotic core, but their appearance late in atherogenesis had been thought to disqualify them as primary inflammatory stimuli. However, using a new microscopic technique, we revealed that minute cholesterol crystals are present in early diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions and that their appearance in mice coincides with the first appearance of inflammatory cells. Other crystalline substances can induce inflammation by stimulating the caspase-1-activating NLRP3 (NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome, which results in cleavage and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines. Here we show that cholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in phagocytes in vitro in a process that involves phagolysosomal damage. Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, cholesterol crystals induce acute inflammation, which is impaired in mice deficient in components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, cathepsin B, cathepsin L or IL-1 molecules. Moreover, when mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were bone-marrow transplanted with NLRP3-deficient, ASC (also known as PYCARD)-deficient or IL-1alpha/beta-deficient bone marrow and fed on a high-cholesterol diet, they had markedly decreased early atherosclerosis and inflammasome-dependent IL-18 levels. Minimally modified LDL can lead to cholesterol crystallization concomitant with NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation in macrophages. Although there is the possibility that oxidized LDL activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo, our results demonstrate that crystalline cholesterol acts as an endogenous danger signal and its deposition in arteries or elsewhere is an early cause rather than a late consequence of inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946640/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946640/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duewell, Peter -- Kono, Hajime -- Rayner, Katey J -- Sirois, Cherilyn M -- Vladimer, Gregory -- Bauernfeind, Franz G -- Abela, George S -- Franchi, Luigi -- Nunez, Gabriel -- Schnurr, Max -- Espevik, Terje -- Lien, Egil -- Fitzgerald, Katherine A -- Rock, Kenneth L -- Moore, Kathryn J -- Wright, Samuel D -- Hornung, Veit -- Latz, Eicke -- R01 AI075318/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083713/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083713-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093262/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093262-01A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Apr 29;464(7293):1357-61. doi: 10.1038/nature08938.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428172" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Atherosclerosis/chemically induced/*metabolism/*pathology ; Bone Marrow Transplantation ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cathepsin B/metabolism ; Cathepsin L/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallization ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/deficiency ; Diet, Atherogenic ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/metabolism/pathology ; Interleukin-1/deficiency ; Interleukin-18/metabolism ; Lysosomes/drug effects/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Peritoneal Cavity/pathology ; Phagocytes/drug effects/pathology/physiology ; Receptors, LDL/deficiency ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: Organic Letters DOI: 10.1021/ol300779x
    Print ISSN: 1523-7060
    Electronic ISSN: 1523-7052
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-06-11
    Description: We present a detailed study of tsunami-induced tilt at in-land sites, to test the interest and feasibility of such analysis for tsunami detection and modelling. We studied tiltmeter and broadband seismometer records of northern Chile, detecting a clear signature of the tsunamis generated by the 2007 Tocopilla ( M  = 7.6) and the 2010 Maule ( M  = 8.8) earthquakes. We find that these records are dominated by the tilt due to the elastic loading of the oceanic floor, with a small effect of the horizontal gravitational attraction. We modelled the Maule tsunami using the seismic source model proposed by Delouis et al. and a bathymetric map, correctly fitting three tide gauge records of the area (Antofagasta, Iquique and Arica). At all the closest stations (7 STS2, 2 long-base tiltmeters), we correctly modelled the first few hours of the tilt signal for the Maule tsunami. The only phase mismatch is for the site that is closer to the ocean. We find a tilt response of 0.005–0.01 μm at 7 km away from the coastline in response to a sea level amplitude change of 10 cm. For the Maule earthquake, we observe a clear tilt signal starting 20 min before the arrival time of the tsunami at the nearest point on the coastline. This capability of tilt or seismic sensors to detect distant tsunamis before they arrive has been successfully tested with a scenario megathrust in the southern Peru-northern Chile seismic gap. However, for large events near the stations, this analysis may no longer be feasible, due to the large amplitude of the long-period seismic signals expected to obscure the loading signal. Inland tilt measurements of tsunamis smooth out short, often unmodelled wavelengths of the sea level perturbation, thus providing robust, large-scale images of the tsunami. Furthermore, tilt measurements are not expected to saturate even for the largest run-ups, nor to suffer from near-coast tsunami damages. Tiltmeters and broadband seismometers are thus valuable instruments for monitoring tsunamis in complement with tide gauge arrays.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-10-26
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/ja409121s
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340476/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340476/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franchi, Luigi -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01 DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 14;337(6100):1299-300. doi: 10.1126/science.1229010.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984056" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*immunology ; Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/enzymology/*immunology ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Mutation ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Kinase C-delta/*metabolism ; Serine/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: The virulence mechanisms that allow pathogens to colonize the intestine remain unclear. Here, we show that germ-free animals are unable to eradicate Citrobacter rodentium, a model for human infections with attaching and effacing bacteria. Early in infection, virulence genes were expressed and required for pathogen growth in conventionally raised mice but not germ-free mice. Virulence gene expression was down-regulated during the late phase of infection, which led to relocation of the pathogen to the intestinal lumen where it was outcompeted by commensals. The ability of commensals to outcompete C. rodentium was determined, at least in part, by the capacity of the pathogen and commensals to grow on structurally similar carbohydrates. Thus, pathogen colonization is controlled by bacterial virulence and through competition with metabolically related commensals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439148/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439148/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kamada, Nobuhiko -- Kim, Yun-Gi -- Sham, Ho Pan -- Vallance, Bruce A -- Puente, Jose L -- Martens, Eric C -- Nunez, Gabriel -- DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK61707/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061707/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1325-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1222195. Epub 2012 May 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Load ; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Bacteroides/*growth & development ; Citrobacter rodentium/genetics/growth & development/immunology/*pathogenicity ; Enterobacteriaceae Infections/immunology/*microbiology ; Escherichia coli/*growth & development ; Feces/microbiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Germ-Free Life ; Intestinal Mucosa/*microbiology ; Intestines/*microbiology ; *Metagenome ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Microbial Interactions ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; Virulence Factors/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1997-10-24
    Description: BAD is a distant member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death. Phosphorylation of BAD prevents this. BAD phosphorylation induced by interleukin-3 (IL-3) was inhibited by specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Akt, a survival-promoting serine-threonine protein kinase, was activated by IL-3 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. Active, but not inactive, forms of Akt were found to phosphorylate BAD in vivo and in vitro at the same residues that are phosphorylated in response to IL-3. Thus, the proapoptotic function of BAD is regulated by the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉del Peso, L -- Gonzalez-Garcia, M -- Page, C -- Herrera, R -- Nunez, G -- CA-64556/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 24;278(5338):687-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381178" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androstadienes/pharmacology ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Carrier Proteins/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chromones/pharmacology ; Enzyme Activation ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Humans ; Interleukin-3/*pharmacology ; Mice ; Morpholines/pharmacology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; bcl-Associated Death Protein ; bcl-X Protein
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-02-21
    Description: The Caenorhabditis elegans survival gene ced-9 regulates ced-4 activity and inhibits cell death, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Through a genetic screen for CED-4-binding proteins, CED-9 was identified as an interacting partner of CED-4. CED-9, but not loss-of-function mutants, associated specifically with CED-4 in yeast or mammalian cells. The CED-9 protein localized primarily to intracellular membranes and the perinuclear region, whereas CED-4 was distributed in the cytosol. Expression of CED-9, but not a mutant lacking the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain, targeted CED-4 from the cytosol to intracellular membranes in mammalian cells. Thus, the actions of CED-4 and CED-9 are directly linked, which could provide the basis for the regulation of programmed cell death in C. elegans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, D -- Wallen, H D -- Nunez, G -- CA-64556/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32A107413-03/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Feb 21;275(5303):1126-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9027313" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*cytology/genetics ; *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Fractionation ; Cell Line ; Cytosol/chemistry ; Genes, Helminth ; Helminth Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Membranes/chemistry ; Mutation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism ; *Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 ; Transfection ; bcl-X Protein
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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