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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-11-30
    Description: The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our analyses depict a large diverse population living throughout Beringia until around 37,000 years before the present, when the population's genetic diversity began to decline dramatically. The timing of this decline correlates with environmental changes associated with the onset of the last glacial cycle, whereas archaeological evidence does not support the presence of large populations of humans in Eastern Beringia until more than 15,000 years later.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shapiro, Beth -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Wilson, Michael C -- Matheus, Paul E -- Sher, Andrei V -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Barnes, Ian -- Binladen, Jonas -- Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Baryshnikov, Gennady F -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergei -- Driver, Jonathan C -- Froese, Duane G -- Harington, C Richard -- Keddie, Grant -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kunz, Michael L -- Martin, Larry D -- Stephenson, Robert O -- Storer, John -- Tedford, Richard -- Zimov, Sergei -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1561-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Henry Wellcome Ancient Biomolecules Centre, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567864" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska ; Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Bison/classification/genetics ; Canada ; China ; *Climate ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Environment ; *Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Human Activities ; Humans ; North America ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-19
    Description: To further elucidate the migration history of the brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 35 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Etorofu and Kunashiri), Sakhalin Island, and the Eurasian Continent (continental Russia, Bulgaria, and Tibet), and those of four polar bears. Based on these sequences, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny of the brown bear and estimated divergence times to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia. Our gene tree showed the mtDNA haplotypes of all 73 brown and polar bears to be divided into eight divergent lineages. The brown bear on Hokkaido was divided into three lineages (central, eastern, and southern). The Sakhalin brown bear grouped with eastern European and western Alaskan brown bears. Etorofu and Kunashiri brown bears were closely related to eastern Hokkaido brown bears and could have diverged from the eastern Hokkaido lineage after formation of the channel between Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands. Tibetan brown bears diverged early in the eastern lineage. Southern Hokkaido brown bears were closely related to North American brown bears.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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