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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-30
    Description: The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary...
    Keywords: The Modern View of Domestication Special Feature
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-05-18
    Description: Petrological data have been acquired on natural trachytes from the Chaîne des Puys, French Massif Central, and on experimental products from phase equilibria to (1) constrain the storage conditions of trachytic magmas that lead to explosive eruptions (dome destructions as block-and-ash flows or pumice-and-ash flows) and (2) provide phase relationships and chemical compositions for differentiated alkaline liquids in an intraplate continental context. Phase assemblages, proportions, and compositions have been determined on six trachytes with SiO 2 contents varying from 62 to 69 wt % and alkali contents of 10·5–12·0 wt %. The samples contain up to 30% of phenocrysts, mainly consisting of feldspar (15–17%; plagioclase and/or alkali-feldspar), biotite (2–6%; except in the most SiO 2 -poor sample), Fe–Ti oxides (1–3%) ± amphibole (〈5%), ± clinopyroxene (~1%). All samples have apatite and zircon as minor phases and titanite was found in one sample. Pristine glasses (melt inclusions or residual glasses) in pumice from explosive events are trachytic to rhyolitic (65–73 wt % SiO 2 and 10·5–13·0 wt % alkali). H 2 O dissolved in melt inclusions and the biotite + alkali feldspar + magnetite hygrobarometer both suggest pre-eruptive H 2 O contents up to 8 wt %. These are so far the highest H 2 O contents ever reported for alkaline liquids in an intraplate continental context. Melt inclusions also contain ~3400 ppm chlorine, ~700 ppm fluorine, and ~300 ppm sulphur. Crystallization experiments on the six trachytes were performed between 200 and 400 MPa, 700 and 900°C, at H 2 O saturation, and oxygen fugacity of NNO ± 1. A comparison between the natural and experimental phase assemblage, proportions, and composition suggests magma storage conditions at a pressure of 300–350 MPa (~10–12 km deep), melt H 2 O content ~8 wt % (close to saturation), an oxygen fugacity close to NNO ~0·5, and temperatures increasing from 700 to 825°C with decreasing bulk SiO 2 content of the trachyte. The high H 2 O contents of the trachytes show that wet conditions may prevail during the differentiation of continental alkaline series. Regardless of the size of the magma reservoir assumed to have fed the trachyte eruptions, calculation of thermal relaxation timescales indicates that the tapped magma reservoir(s) are likely to be still partially molten. The four northernmost edifices may correspond to a single large reservoir with a lateral extent of up to 10 km, which could be possibly reactivated in weeks to months if intercepted by new rising mafic magma batches.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolon, Brad -- Altrock, Bruce -- Barthold, Stephen W -- Baumgarth, Nicole -- Besselsen, David -- Boivin, Gregory -- Boyd, Kelli L -- Brayton, Cory -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Couto, Suzana -- Eaton, Kathryn A -- Foreman, Oded -- Griffey, Stephen M -- La Perle, Krista -- Lairmore, Michael D -- Liu, Chen -- Meyerholz, David K -- Nikitin, Alexander Yu -- Schoeb, Trenton R -- Schwahn, Denise -- Sellers, Rani S -- Sundberg, John P -- Tolwani, Ravi -- Valli, Victor E -- Zink, M Christine -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1516-7. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6024.1516-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Translational Medical Research/*organization & administration ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Keywords: Anaphes victus ; Supernumerary larvae ; Oviposition interval ; Facultative hyperparasitism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In solitary parasitoids, in which only one individual can emerge per host, the adaptive value of conspecific superparasitism is a function of the survival probability of the egg laid by the superparasitizing female. In the few cases which these probabilities are compared, the oldest immature has an advantage over the other individuals. We measured the acceptance rate of parasitized hosts and survival rate of supernumerary larvae in Anaphes victus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in relation to the interval between ovipositions. When this interval was 5–7 days, the first immature was at the prepupa and pupa stage respectively, and female Anaphes victus changed their oviposition behavior markedly. They killed the developing parasitoid of their own species before ovipositing in it. The progeny of these females, which are normally primary parasitoids, developed thereafter as hyperparasitoids. Indeed, in contrast with other species, the survival of the second female's progeny increased with the time interval between ovipositions. This type of facultative intraspecific hyperparasitism is different from autoparasitism in Aphelinidae and has never been mentioned in other parasitoids; it would be adaptive if females of this short-lived species encounter low-quality patches.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 202 (1979), S. 203-212 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Mineralization processes ; Scales ; Teleost fish ; Matrix vesicles ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Teleost fish scales, growth and mineralization are continuous. Different mineralization processes can be distinguished. The external layer of the scale is the first to be mineralized and may be classified as the initial calcifying structure of the scale. The initial calcification loci are matrix vesicles of cellular origin always observed during the formation of this layer. This mineralization process takes place progressively, closely following the elaboration of the organic matrix in the scale periphery. The outer limiting and internal layers of the scale are developed after the external layer has been formed. A mineral substance is deposited without the mediation of matrix vesicles, but in contact with the previously mineralized external layer. This type of mineralization is called subsequential. However, the mineralization of the outer limiting layer closely follows the secretion of a collagen-free organic matrix and is thus different from the mineralization of the internal layer in which the calcification front remains remote from the collagen matrix surface and corresponds to a delayed mineralization process. The isolated calcifications (Mandl's corpuscles) which develop in the unmineralized laminae of the internal layer are mineralized in the absence of matrix vesicles and without making contact with a pre-existing calcified tissue, probably by a heterogeneous nucleation of the collagen fibrils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Calcergy ; Calcification ; Cutaneous calcinosis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In rats a subcutaneous injection of KMnO4 leads to the calcification of the connective tissue. During mineral deposition, both intra- and extracellular changes are observed in the connective tissue. The intracellular phase is characterized by the formation of intramitochondrial granules and cytoplasmic vesicles, both in fibroblastic and extrinsic cells. In the extracellular phase, numerous heterogeneous matrix vesicles appear in the extracellular matrix. At the same time, globular particles which are resistant to microincineration, are observed between the collagen fibrils. The mineralization of the extracellular matrix takes place in two stages. The first stage comprises the appearance of needle-like structures and round aggregates. The needle-like structures are observed occasionally in the matrix vesicles and often in the extracellular matrix where they appear isolated or diverging from a central point. The round aggregates, composed of dense particles, are seen in the ground substance between the collagen fibrils. The second stage is characterized by a progressive mineralization of the collagen fibrils and the elastic fibers, without formation of extended calcified plaques.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Keywords: Key wordsAnaphes victus ; Supernumerary larvae ; Oviposition interval ; Facultative hyperparasitism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In solitary parasitoids, in which only one individual can emerge per host, the adaptive value of conspecific superparasitism is a function of the survival probability of the egg laid by the superparasitizing female. In the few cases which these probabilities are compared, the oldest immature has an advantage over the other individuals. We measured the acceptance rate of parasitized hosts and survival rate of supernumerary larvae in Anaphes victus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in relation to the interval between ovipositions. When this interval was 5–7 days, the first immature was at the prepupa and pupa stage respectively, and female Anaphes victus changed their oviposition behavior markedly. They killed the developing parasitoid of their own species before ovipositing in it. The progeny of these females, which are normally primary parasitoids, developed thereafter as hyperparasitoids. Indeed, in contrast with other species, the survival of the second female’s progeny increased with the time interval between ovipositions. This type of facultative intraspecific hyperparasitism is different from autoparasitism in Aphelinidae and has never been mentioned in other parasitoids; it would be adaptive if females of this short-lived species encounter low-quality patches.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Predatory mirids ; Miridae ; Aphis pomi ; Tetranychus urticae ; Panonychus ulmi ; Miridae ; Aphis pomi ; Tetranychus urticae ; Panonychus ulmi ; prédateur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le niveau de prédation de huit espèces de mirides prédateurs (Hemiptera: Miridae) présents en verger de pommiers au Québec a été établi pour le puceron vert du pommier, le tétranyque à deux points et le tétranyque rouge du pommier. Le taux de consommation journalier a varié de 1–2 pucerons vert du pommier pourHyaliodes vitripennis Say etCampylomma verbasci Meyer à 7–9 pucerons pourDeraeocoris fasciolus Knight etLepidopsallus minisculus Knight.H. vitripennis a consommé significativement plus de tétranyques que les autres espèces de mirides avec 26 et 18 tétranyques à deux points et tétranyques rouge du pommier respectivement. L'utilisation combinée deH. vitripennis etL. minisculus est suggérée pour la lutte biologique contre les tétranyques du pommier.
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of predation of eight species of predacious mirids (Hemiptera: Miridae) present in an apple orchard of Québec on the green apple aphid, two-spotted spider mite and European red mite were investigated. The daily consumption rates varied from 1–2 green apple aphids forHyaliodes vitripennis Say andCampylomma verbasci Meyer to 7–9 aphids forDeraeocoris fasciolus Knight andLepidopsallus minisculus Knight.H. vitripennis consumed significantly more mites than the other mirid species with 26 and 18 mites per day for the two-spotted spider mite and the European red mite respectively. The combined use ofH. vitripennis andL. minisculus is suggested for the control of phytophagous mites.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: predation ; Carabids ; carrot weevil ; prédation ; Carabidae ; charançon de la carotte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Quatre espèces de Carabidae,Anisodactylus santaecrucis, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum, Pterostichus lucublandus, etPterostichus melanarius, abondantes dans les champs de carottes du sud-ouest du Québec, ont été testées en laboratoire comme prédateurs du charançon de la carotte,Listronotus oregonensis. L'espèce de Carabidae la plus grande,P. melanarius, a consommé le plus grand nombre de larves et de pupes du charançon de la carotte.B. quadrimaculatum oppositum n'a pas dévoré d'œufs de charançon lorsque ces derniers étaient pondus sur des feuilles de carottes.
    Notes: Abstract Four carabid species,Anisodactylus santaecrucis, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum, Pterostichus lucublandus andPterostichus melanarius, abundant in carrot fields in southwestern Quebec, were tested for predation against the carrot weevil,Listronotus oregonensis, on host plants. The largest species,Pterostichus melanarius, consumed the greatest number of carrot weevil larvae and pupae.Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum did not prey on carrot weevil eggs laid on carrot leaves.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: egg parasitoids ; Mymaridae ; Scelionidae ; Miridae ; Lygus lineolaris ; oophage ; parasitoïde ; Lygus lineolaris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le parasitisme des œufs deLygus lineolaris par trois espèces deMymaridae, Anaphes iole, Erythmelus miridiphagus etPolynema pratensiphagum et une espèce deScelionidae, Telenomus sp. a été observé à Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec. Le niveau maximal de parasitisme observé au champ pour chaque espèce a été respectivement de 15,4, 53,8, 70,0 et 16,7%. Les parasitoïdes étaient obtenus d'œufs deL. lineolaris insérés dans des tiges et des branches d'Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Coronilla varia, Rumex obtusifolius etSolanum tuberosum. A. retroflexus etS. tuberosum portaient une population élevée deL. lineolaris et le parasitisme des œufs était suffisamment élevé pour que l'on puisse considérer qu'il constitue un facteur important de limitation des populations de la punaise.
    Notes: Abstract Parasitism ofLygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) eggs by three species ofMymaridae, Anaphes iole Girault,Erythmelus miridiphagus Dozier andPolynema pratensiphagum Walley and one species ofScelionidae, Telenomus sp., was investigated at Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec. The maximum level of field parasitism ofL. lineolaris eggs by individual species was 15.4, 53.8, 70.0 and 16,7%, respectively. Parasitoids were retrieved from eggs ofL. lineolaris inserted in stems and branches ofAmaranthus retroflexus L.,Chenopodium album L.,Coronilla varia L.,Rumex obtusifolius L. andSolanum tuberosum L. Amaranthus retroflexus andS. tuberosum sustained a large population ofL. lineolaris and egg parasitism was high enough to consider it as a potential control factor.
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