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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study was performed to determine if rat articular chondrocytes express caveolin, the structural protein of caveolae, and to determine differences in the distribution of the caveolin subtypes 1, 2 and 3 in knee joints of newborn and adult rats. All three subtypes of caveolin were detected in adult cartilage by immunocytochemical staining. In newborn rats, only caveolin-1 was found in the hyaline cartilage. Caveolin-1, -2 and -3 messenger RNA and protein were also detected in chondrocyte cell cultures. Ultrastructural investigations of cell culture and cartilage tissue revealed the presence of caveolae at the plasma membrane of chondrocytes. These findings represent the first report on the different expression of caveolin isoforms, in particular the expression of the muscle cell-specific caveolin-3 in chondrocytes. There is evidence that caveolin-2 and -3 are upregulated during growth and development of articular cartilage, suggesting a role for caveolins in chondrocyte differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Until now, many extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. osteopontin and osteonectin, have been used to determine a cell’s osteogenic maturation. The disadvantage in evaluation of these proteins is their relative wide-ranging appearance throughout the osteogenic differentiation process. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an immunohistochemical setup using E11, a marker that binds selectively to cells of the late osteogenic cell lineage. In addition, the histochemical expression of the bone matrix proteins osteonectin, osteopontin and fibronectin was compared to that of E11 using monoclonal antibodies. For light microscopical detection of osteogenic markers in cultured cells we developed a simple paraffin technique using a fibrin glue as embedding medium. This allows the handling of cultured cells such as a tissue sample and includes the use of stored biological specimens for further immunohistochemical experiments. We used newborn rat calvariae for whole tissue preparations and for isolation and cultivation of bone cells. In addition, we included the rat osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 in this study. For the first time, we have localised E11 in osteocytes of rat calvaria preparations at the electron microscopical level. E11 was detected at plasma membranes of osteocytes and their processes, but not at those of osteoblasts. Accompanying experiments with cultured newborn rat calvaria cells and ROS 17/2.8 cells revealed E11 reactivity on a subset of cells. The results obtained confirm the suitability of the differentiation marker E11 as a sensitive instrument for the characterisation of bone cell culture systems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Nitric oxide ; Nitrergic nerves ; Arteriovenous anastomoses ; Epithelioid cells ; Man ; Rat (Wistar) ; Rabbit ; Dog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nitrergic innervation and nitrergic epithelioid cells were studied in arteriovenous anastomoses of the tongue, ear, eye, and glomus organ of the finger in different species (rat, rabbit, dog, and man), by means of immunohistochemistry for nitric oxide synthase and enzyme histochemistry utilizing the catalytic activity of this enzyme (the NADPH-diaphorase reaction). Nitrergic perivascular fibers of the tongue were concentrated along the arterial tree and were maximal at the arteriovenous anastomoses in all species. Generally, fewer fibers were located around comparable segments of the episcleral eye vasculature. Only a few nitrergic fibers were found in the canine and rabbit ear, and in the glomus organ of the human finger; however, epithelioid cells in the tunica media of arteriovenous anastomoses of these organs were NADPH-diaphorase-positive and were moderately immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. In the epithelioid cells, the reaction product of the NADPH-diaphorase could also be demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. The epithelioid cells were negative for the panneural and neuroendocrine marker PGP 9.5 confirming the myocytotic nature of these nitrergic cells. Thus, nitric oxide might play a role in mediating the vessel tone of arteriovenous anastomoses via nitrergic nerves or epithelioid cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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