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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Maize ; Chromosome banding ; G-banding method ; Enzymatic maceration ; Image analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary It was demonstrated that G-bands are unequivocally present in plant chromosomes, in contrast to what had been formerly believed by plant cytologists. Maize chromosomes prepared by an enzymatic maceration method and treated with trypsin or SDS showed clear G-bands spreading along the chromosomes. The most critical point during the G-banding procedures was the post-fixation with glutaraldehyde solution. Banding patterns were processed by using the chromosome image analyzing system and a clearer image was obtained. Gbanding technique and the image manipulation method described here can be applied to many plant species, and would contribute new information in the field of plant cytology and genetics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-12
    Description: Cosmic ray heavy nucleus enders flux by nuclear emulsions for balloon flights at various atmospheric depths
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: ; RO(
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Roots grown in an applied electric field demonstrate a bidirectional curvature. To further understand the nature of this response and its implications for the regulation of differential growth, we applied an electric field to roots growing in microgravity. We found that growth rates of roots in microgravity were higher than growth rates of ground controls. Immediately upon application of the electric field, root elongation was inhibited. We interpret this result as an indication that, in the absence of a gravity stimulus, the sensitivity of the root to an applied electric stimulus is increased. Further space experiments are required to determine the extent to which this sensitivity is shifted. The implications of this result are discussed in relation to gravitropic signaling and the regulation of differential cell elongation in the root.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of plant research (ISSN 0918-9440); Volume 112; 1108; 493-6
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Information on solar irradiance at wavelengths below 185 nm, observed by the EUVS experiment on the AE-E satellite over the entire development of the present sunspot cycle 21, is important to a variety of investigations of planetary thermospheres and ionospheres. Since strictly observational information is generally lacking in both the completeness and the spectral detail required by the more advanced programs, it has been necessary to develop computer models in connection with fully detailed compilations of an appropriate reference spectrum. The period of July 13-18, 1976, is selected as an observationally reliable AE-E data reference period reflecting solar conditions of minimum activity for solar cycle 21. It is pointed out that the assignments of absolute irradiance-reference values have been drawn for all available sources of information other than that provided by AE-E.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: AFGL-TR-81-0362 , AD-A109635 , Geophysical Research Letters; 8; Nov. 198
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Phobos and Deimos, the two moons of Mars, are considered to be scientifically important and potential human mission's target. Martian Moons eXplorer (MMX) is the JAXA's mission to explore Phobos (and/or Deimos), which is scheduled to be launched in 2024. The main spacecraft of MMX will perform in-situ observations of both Phobos and Deimos, land on one of them (most likely, Phobos), and bring samples back to Earth. Small landing modules may be included in the mission as for the Hayabusa-2 mission. The designs of both the landing and sampling devices depend largely on the surface conditions of the target body and on how this surface reacts to an external action in the low gravity conditions of the target. Thus, the Landing Operation Working Team (LOWT) of MMX, which is composed of both scientists and engineers, is studying Phobos' surface based on previous observations and theoretical/experimental considerations. Though engineering motivation initiated this activity, the results will be extremely useful for scientific purposes.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN53847 , Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2018; 19-23 Mar. 2018; The Woodlands, TX; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This is the first analysis, using a statistically significant data set, of the morphological dependence of the presence, orientation, and motion of stable sun-aligned polar cap arcs upon the vector interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). For the one winter season analyzed we had 1392 all-sky 630.0-nm images of 2-min resolution containing a total of 150 polar cap arcs, all with corresponding values of the IMF as measured by International Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8 or International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) 2. After demonstrating an unbiased data set with smooth normal distributions of events versus the dimensions of time, space, and IMF component, we examine IMF dependencies of the properties of the optical arcs. A well-defined dependence for B(sub z) is found for the presence/absence of stable Sun-aligned polar cap arcs. Consistent with previous statistical studies, the probability of observing polar cap aurora steadily increases for larger positive values of B(sub z), and linearly decreases when B(sub z) becomes more negative. The probability of observing Sun-aligned arcs within the polar cap is determined to vary sharply as a function of the arc location; arcs were observed 40% of the time on the dawnside and only 10% on the duskside. This implies an overall probability of at least 40% for the whole polar cap. 20% of the arcs were observed during 'southward IMF conditions,' but in fact under closer inspection were found to have been formed under northward IMF conditions; these 'residual' positive B(sub z) arcs ha d a delayed residence time in the polar cap of about what would be expected after a north to south transition of B(sub z). A firm dependence on B(sub y) is also found for both the orientation and the dawn-dusk direction of motion of the arcs. All the arcs are Sun-aligned to a first approximation, but present deviations from this orientation, depending primarily upon the location of the arc in corrected geomagnetic (CG) coordinates. The arcs populating the 06-12 and the 12-18 quadrants of the CG coordinate system point toward the cusp. The B(sub y) dependency of the arc alignment is consistent with a cusp displacement in local time according to the sign of B(sub y). We found that the arc direction of motion depended both on B(sub y) and the arc location within the polar cap. For a given value of B(sub y) two well-defined regions (or cells) exist. Within each cell the arcs move in the same direction toward the boundary between the cells. The arcs located in the duskside move dawnward; those in the dawnside move duskward. The relative size of these dusk and dawn regions (or cells) are controlled by the magnitude of B(sub y). This persistent dusk-dawn motion fo the polar cap arcs is interpreted in terms of newly open flux tubes entering the polar cap and exerting a displacement of the convective cells and the polar cap arcs that are embedded within them.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A4; p. 6247-6272
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: To design and construct underground structures, it is essential to understand the mechanical properties of rock in not only compression but also tension. It is well known that water is one of the important factors affecting the deformation and failure of rock. In this study, laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to understand the effect of water on rock properties in uniaxial tension. In the experiments, a testing machine previously used for uniaxial tension tests in dry conditions was modified for tests in wet conditions. Using this machine, complete stress–strain curves from the pre- to postpeak regions of water-saturated specimens in uniaxial tension were obtained. The results for granite, tuff, and two types of andesite showed that the stress–strain curves in wet conditions have a lower initial slope and lower strength than those in dry conditions, and they are strongly nonlinear in the prepeak region. Comparing the changes in the results for uniaxial tension versus compression due to water, it was found that the reduction rate of uniaxial tensile strength was greater than that of uniaxial compressive strength, while the ratio between the reduction rates was almost constant for various rocks. In numerical simulations, the stress–strain curves in the prepeak region under dry and wet conditions could be reproduced by crack extension models under uniaxial tensile stress. Numerical analyses indicated that the nonlinearity of the stress–strain curves is probably due to the longer crack extension in wet compared with dry conditions. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Wien
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-03-01
    Description: The degree to which a rock abrades another rock is called its “abrasivity”. Laboratory tests of abrasivity can be broadly divided into four kinds: drilling, rubbing, turning-operation and tumbling tests. The present study was initiated 30 years ago with the objective of investigating and developing methods for measuring rock abrasivity, and making some contribution towards understanding the relationships between the above test methods. Within the range of tests conducted, the turning-operation test turned out to be superior to the drilling test, albeit slightly, in terms of practicality. We have also conducted in situ tests using rock drills for the last 20 years. The results of those tests have been investigated and compared with the results of laboratory tests. There is a large degree of scatter in the data on gauge loss in button bits, which has obscured any correlations with laboratory data. Some correlations were found between height loss in button bits and laboratory findings. ©2010 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-02-06
    Description: .Tunnel face and wall collapse are common during excavations performed by tunnel boring machines (TBMs) due to the difficulty of correctly identifying the properties of the excavated rock. This identification, however, can be simplified by using the cutting force to estimate rock strength, a method that has already proved quite successful in Japanese tunnel excavations. This paper summarizes knowledge relating to the cutting force obtained through tunnel excavation experience, and the relationship between rock strength and TBM operation is discussed. Although TBM operators rely on intuition to set the cutter head speed appropriately, this decision process represents a logical method of operation that takes advantage of the variable speed capability of the cutter head. Selection of appropriate support methods for the excavated face is also a critical issue in tunnel excavation. This selection process is based on the condition of the rock, which is difficult to determine quickly and accurately during tunnel excavation. The present paper uses the excavation of two tunnels to demonstrate that it is possible to assign rock mass classifications accurately based on rock strength when boring a uniform rock type. It is also shown that the rock mass can be classified from the rock strength normalized by the uniaxial compressive strength when boring through mixed rock types. ©2005 Springer-Verlag/Wien
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2005-11-15
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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