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  • 1
    Unknown
    Tokyo : TERRAPUB
    Keywords: seismotectonics ; convergent plate boundary ; seismic velocity ; conductivity ; crustal activity ; active faults ; seismotectonics in the subduction zone Japan ; seismotectonics around the active convergent zones ; models of subduction zones ; earthquake ; Turkey ; Taiwan ; in-situ measurements ; scismotectonics ; earthquake hazard mitigation
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthetic Discussions --- Geophysical Studies of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone off Western Canada and Their Implications for Great Earthquake Seismotectonics: A Review / Ron M. Clowes and Roy D. Hyndman / pp. 1-23 --- Understanding the Seismotectonics of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Overview and Recent Seismic Work / Thomas L. Pratt, Craig S. Weaver, Thomas M. Brocher, Thomas Parsons, Michael A. Fisher, Kenneth C. Creager, Robert S. Crosson, Roy D. Hyndman, George Spence, Anne M. Tréhu, Kate C. Miller and Uri S. TEN Brink / pp. 25-36 --- Long-Term Probabilistic Forecast in Japan and Time-Predictable Behavior of Earthquake Recurrence / Kunihiko Shimazaki / pp. 37-43 --- Recipe for Estimating Strong Ground Motions from Active Fault Earthquakes / Kojiro Irikura / pp. 45-55 --- Seismic Velocity --- New Features of Island Arc Crust Inferred from Seismic Refraction/Wide-Angle Reflection Expeditions in Japan / Takaya Iwasaki, Toshikatsu Yoshii, Naoshi Hirata and Hiroshi Sato / pp. 57-70 --- Seeking the Cause of Large Crustal Earthquakes in Japan: Influence of Arc Magma and Fluids / Dapeng Zhao / pp. 71-91 --- Conductivity --- Stress, Stress Release and Geoelectromagnetism / Fiona Simpson / pp. 93-106 --- Network-MT Survey in Japan to Determine Nation-Wide Deep Electrical Conductivity Structure / Makoto Uyeshima, Masahiro Ichiki, Ikuko Fujii, Hisashi Utada, Yasunori Nishida, Hideyuki Satoh, Masaaki Mishina, Tadashi Nishitani, Satoru Yamaguchi, Ichiro Shiozaki, Hideki Murakami and Naoto Oshiman / pp. 107-121 --- Understanding of Seismic Activity Using Conductivity Data in the Central Part of Northeastern Japan / Yukio Fujinawa, Noriaki Kawakami, Jun Inoue, Theodore H. Asch, Shinji Takasugi and Yoshimori Honkura / pp. 123-140 --- Crustal Activity --- Monitoring of Crustal Deformation in Japan Using L-band SAR Interferometry / Makoto Murakami, Satoshi Fujiwara, Takuya Nishimura, Mikio Tobita, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Shinzaburo Ozawa and Masaki Murakami / pp. 141-146 --- Detection of a Coupling State in the Tokai Plate-Subducting Region Based on Microearthquake Seismicity and on Crustal Deformation / Shozo Matsumura / pp. 147-155 --- Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai Earthquakes / Yuichiro Tanioka / pp. 157-165 --- The Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) / Kenneth W, Hudnut, Yehuda Bock, John E. Galetzka, Frank H. Webb and William H. Young / pp. 167-189 --- Crustal Movement in Southwest Japan, Deduced from Continuous GPS Measurements, and Its Seismotectonic Implications / Kaoru Miyashita, Jianxin Li and Takashi Kawachi / pp. 191-200 --- Active Faults --- Deep Geometry and Evolution of Active Faults in Northern Honshu, Japan / Hiroshi Sato, Naoshi Hirata And Takaya Iwasaki / pp. 201-207 --- Rupturing History of Active Faults during the Last 1000 Years in the Central Japan / Eikichi Tsukuda / pp. 209-218 --- Active Faulting, Lower Crustal Delamination and Ongoing Hidaka Arc-Arc Collision, Hokkaido, Japan / Tanio Ito / pp. 219-224 --- Seismotectonics in the Subduction Zone: Japan --- Inhomogeneous Structure of the Crust and Its Relationship to Earthquake Occurrence / Norihito Umino and Akira Hasegawa / pp. 225-235 --- Configuration of the Philippine Sea Slab and Seismic Activity in the Tokai Region, Central Japan / Satoshi Harada and Akio Yoshida / pp. 237-246 --- On-Line Operating Network of the High Gain Seismometers and Tsunami Sensors, Deployed at the Sea-Floor of the Sagami Trough Subduction Zone, Central Japan / Takao Eguchi, Yukio Fujinawa, Eisuke Fujita, Sin-Iti Iwasaki, Isao Watabe, Hiroaki Negishi and Hiroyuki Fujiwara / pp. 247-260 --- Seismotectonics around the Active Convergent Zones --- Seismotectonics of the Frontal Himalaya through the Electrical Conductivity Imaging / B. R. Arora / pp. 261-272 --- Models of Subduction Zones --- A Simple Review on the Simulation of Earthquake Cycle at Subduction Zones / Kazuro Hirahara / pp. 273-282 --- Systematic Variations in Non-Local Seismicity Patterns in Southern California / K. F. Tiampo, J. B. Rundle, S. McGinnis, W. Klein and S. J. Gross / pp. 283-292 --- Earthquake in Turkey --- Deep Resistivity Structure around the Fault Associated with the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, Turkey / N. Oshiman, R. Yoshimura, T. Kasaya, Y. Honkura, M. Matsushima, S. Baris, C. Celik, M. K. Tuncer and A. M. Isikara / pp. 293-303 --- S Wave Splitting Observation inside of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey / Keiichi Tadokoro, Masataka Ando, Serif Baris, Kin'ya Nishigami, Mamoru Nakamura, S. Balamir Ücer, Akihiko Ito, Yoshimori Honkura and A. Mete Isikara / pp. 305-310 --- Earthquake in Taiwan --- Drilling the Chelungpu Fault, Taiwan: Cores and Heat-Flow from a Thrust-Fault with Very Large Displacements in a Recent Earthquake / Masataka Ando, James Mori, Hidemi Tanaka and Kuo-Fong Ma / pp. 311-317 --- The Ms7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake of September 20, 1999 / J.-H. Wang, R.-D. Hwang, B.-S. Huang, K.-C. Chen, W.-G. Huang, and T.-M. Chang / pp. 319-324 --- Some Observations about the Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake of September 21, 1999 / Yi-Ben Tsai / pp. 325-366 --- In-situ Measurements to Understand Seismotectonics in the Subduction Zone --- Borehole Observatories into Subduction Seismogenic Zones / Kiyoshi Suyehiro / pp. 367-374 --- Continental Scientific Drilling for Studying Plate Subduction Earthquakes / Ryuji Ikeda / pp. 375-382 --- Scismotectonics Applied to Earthquake Hazard Mitigation --- Stress Drop Distribution of Micro-Earthquakes at Ootaki, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, Obtained from Waveform Data by Borehole Stations / Shigeki Horiuchi and Yoshihisa Iio / pp. 383-391 --- Site Amplification of' K-NET Sites in the Kanto Region, Central Japan / Shigeo Kinoshita and Yousuke Ogue / pp. 393-405 --- Caltech-USGS Element of TriNet: Remote Stations, Communications, and Data Acquisition / E. Hauksson, P. Maechling, R. Busby and H. Kanamori / pp. 407-423 --- Microzoning Studies for Seismic Risk Mitigation / Kazuoh Seo, Diana Polonska, Katsumi Kurita and Kentaro Motoki / pp. 425-450 --- Earthquake Clusters in the Kanto and Tokai Subduction Zones: Implications for Modes of Plate Consumption / Shin-ichi Noguchi / pp. 451-467 --- Seismic Scattering from Small-Scale Heterogeneities: Numerical Simulations and Observation / Kiyoshi Yomogida / pp. 469-480 --- Tectonic Characteristics of Seismogenic Stress Field in East Asia / Jiren Xu, Zhixin Zhao and Kazuo Oike / pp. 481-497
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 500 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041292
    Language: English
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The results of laboratory and field experiments on a CTD measuring unit attached to a controllable towed body is described. It was verified that the three-dimensional distribution of salinity and temperature could be observed with sufficient accuracy (to 0.03‰ in salinity and to 0.01°C in temperature if proper correction is adopted) while cruising at up to 4 knots. A double integrated A/D converter is used to compensate for effects of extraneous environmental changes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A method is proposed to estimate the true directional spectrum of wind waves by making use of more than four wave detectors. The true spectrum of wind waves whose wave lengths lie between about 1.1 and 2.6 times the largest span between the wave gauges can be recovered with an error less than 0.5 %. An additional wave gauge with fixed maximum span extends its effectivity to shorter wave lengths, but does not effect the upper limit of wave length. The method is based on the fact that the spectrum estimated byBarber (1961) is connected with true directional spectrum by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind if the wave component satisfies the dispersion relation. Solving the equation by using the Fourier series method, we can get true spectrum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The directional spectrum of wind waves was observed using seven wave gauges at the marine observation tower. Directional spectrum was calculated by the method described inFujinawa (1974 a) which assures the high directional resolving power. Under the nearly uniform condition of the wind the process of wave development was studied by the use of the data of the directional spectrum. The analysis revealed that, 1) the mean wave direction does not necessarily coincide with the wind direction, 2) the directional spreading is much narrower than hitherto reported, 3) the growth rate is closely proportional to the square of cosine of the angle between the wave direction and the wind direction, 4) the resonancetype wave-wave interaction plays only minor role in the process of wave development for any wave component in the earlier stage of development and for the most rapidly developing component in the main stage of development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Interaction between the turbulence and the wave-induced air disturbances is treated by use of the mass and momentum conservation equations and the rapid distortion assumption. Assuming the correlation functions of the velocity derivatives, growth rates of waves are calculated. The growth rate obtained for the reasonable values of parameters shows the agreement with that obtained in the laboratory experiment byKendall (1970) and in the field experiments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of oceanography 35 (1979), S. 9-25 
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Long ocean waves with periods of several minutes (surf-beats) were observed at a marine observation tower. We have analysed time series data of an envelope of incident swell, long period current velocity and surface elevation fluctuations. Current velocity was measued by an electromagnetic flow meter. Surf-beats amplitudeH (l) is shown to be proportional to 3/2 power of incident swell amplitudeH (s), and decreases with increase of depthh in proportional toh −1/2 such thatH (l) ∼H (s) (H (s)/h)1/2. Frequency energy density functionP LL (f) of surface elevation had two dominant peaks whose frequencies were highly stable through the entire observational period. Cross-spectral analysis suggested that those peaks correspond to traveling edge waves caused by the excess momentum and mass flux in the surf zone. The forced long ocean waves predicted byLonguet-Higgins andStewart (1964) was ditected. Phase-shift and wave height of the wave with respect to those of incident swell envelope are shown to be in remarkable agreement with the predictions. However the forced long wave is only a minor component in the total energy of surf-beats. Current fields are shown to be largely composed of non-surface modes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of oceanography 31 (1975), S. 176-177 
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We designed a new pop-up type Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) in order to study micro-earthquakes in off-shore areas. With a 57 cm O.D. sphere of high tension aluminium alloy, the OBS system, including one vertical and one horizontal geophone, can safely operate on ocean floors of up to 6000 m depth for seismic observations. The amplified seismic data and the time code are directly recorded on the four-channel cassette deck for periods of up to one month. The frequency response curve throughout the recording and play-back system is flat for the range, 1–15 Hz (−3 dB). The anchor release and the geophone clamp are operated by an acoustic command signal. So far, we have deployed our OBS's 42 times in the ocean. All of the OBS's deployed have been recovered safely. Seismic data has provided seismological evidence for a number of processes associated with tectonism along subduction zones and spreading ridges (e.g., Eguchi et al., 1986).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: real-time observation network ; ocean-bottom-seismometer ; velocity seismometer ; accelerometer ; tsunami sensor ; pressure data ; tsunami record ; P- and S-waves ; hypocenter determination ; Sagami trough ; subduction zone ; Tokyo metropolitan area ; Philippine sea plate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We installed a real-time operating regional observation network of Ocean-Bottom-Seismometers, connected to an electro-optical fiber communication cable, at the Sagami trough subduction zone, just south of the Tokyo metropolitan area, central Japan. The network, called ETMC, has six seismic observation sites at approximately 20 km spacing. In addition, there are three tsunami observation sites along the ETMC network to monitor the propagation process of tsunamis around the Sagami trough region. The on-line data from the ETMC has been improving the detection capability of smaller-magnitude earthquakes even at areas close to the margin of the trough. The ETMC data analyzing system, which has a function of real-time digital filtering for each seismic channel, can read the arrival times of P- and S-waves precisely, constraining well the automatic on-line hypocenter locations. The network has been providing useful information regarding the bending and downgoing process of the Philippine sea plate at the Sagami trough subduction zone. The pressure sensors of the installed network have a detection capability of tsunami wave trains with an amplitude of less than 1 cm. For example, the sensors recorded the full time history of tsunami wave trains, with mm order resolution, originating from a ‘tsunami earthquake’ with 5.7 MW and the tsunami magnitude of 7.5 occurred near Tori Shima (Tori Is.) of the Izu-Bonin Is. arc on September 4, 1996. The maximum amplitude of the tsunami signals on the trough-floor was approximately 1 cm (P-P), in contrast with approximately 20 cm (0-P) at a coastal site on Izu-Oshima, near the trough. Also, the pressure sensors observed tsunamis due to a large tsunami earthquake (7.1 MW) at the northern New Guinea, on July 17, 1998.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Earthquake prediction ; synthetic probability ; Markov chain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract It is valuable in earthquake prediction to determine the occurrence probability of major earthquakes by making use of data obtained from precursory phenomena up to the time of the evaluation. In this study, the time evolution of the state determined by earthquakes and precursory phenomena was modelled using Markov chains. Various probabilities suitable for earthquake prediction were derived from the transition probability of the Markov chain with a chosen length of memory time. As an example, earthquake sequence records for northern China, which covered a period of about two thousand years, were examined and the results were also obtained from modern scientific observations of the radon anomaly which covered a period of about 10 years. Assuming moderate-sized earthquakes of two magnitude ranges 4 3/4 ≤ M ≤ 5 3/4, 6 ≤ M ≤ 6 3/4 as precursors to large earthquakes of a magnitude range, 7 ≤ M ≤ 8 1/2, transition probabilities were calculated for a time interval from 2 to 40 yr. The results showed that the precursory time of moderate-sized earthquakes is mainly distributed in a time span of around several years and that the earthquake occurrence probability is considerably large when the precursory earthquakes occur successively. Furthermore, it was shown that a larger moderate-sized earthquake (4 3/4 ≤ M ≤ 5 3/4) is a more effective precursor than an entire moderate-sized earthquake (4 3/4 ≤ M ≤ 6 3/4). Second, a multiple precursor case was tried by means of simulation based on the radon anomaly data obtained during a limited observation period. Simultaneous occurrence of two precursors makes the earthquake occurrence probability increase by 1.5–2.0 for a reasonable choice of a mean recurrence interval of the radon anomaly compared with the case where only a moderate-sized earthquake was treated as the precursor. However, the probability is much the same if the average recurrence interval of the radon anomaly is the same through time, including the preparatory period before the earthquake.
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