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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Fuerstenau, D W; Han, K N (1977): Extractive metallurgy (Chapter 12). in: Glasby, G.P. (Ed.), Marine Manganese Deposits. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 357-390, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0422-9894(08)71026-2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: This chapter discusses the formation and distribution of some metals in ocean-floor manganese nodules in the light of the observed data in the literature and thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of the oxidation of metal ions in the oceanic environment. There are, in general, two major schools of thought on the mechanism of incorporation of the minor elements such as nickel, copper, and cobalt with the major elements such as manganese and iron. One is the lattice substitution mechanism and the other the adsorption mechanism. If the mechanism is lattice substitution, extraction of the metal ions is not possible unless the lattice of the major elements is first broken and exchanged with other ions from the bulk solution. Consequently, the leaching behavior of minor elements should display a very close relationship with that of major elements.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 46 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Burns, Roger G; Fuerstenau, D W (1966): Electron-probe determination of inter-element relationships in manganese nodules. American Mineralogist, 51, 895-902, http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM51/AM51_895.pdf
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Manganese nodules have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a potential source of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and other minor elements. These elements are enriched in manganese nodules relative to igneous rocks, sea-water, and deep-sea clays. The present paper describes methods by which element correlations may be determined with the electron-probe, and summarizes the results obtained by electron-beam scanning and specimen traversing. The results obtained in the present electron-probe investigation of manganese nodules may be summarized as follows: (l) The iron concentration fluctuates whereas the manganese concentration is relatively uniform throughout a manganese nodule, hbing slightly higher where iron is low. (2) There is a distinct correlation between Fe, Co, Ti, and Ca. (3) There is pronounced element coherence between Xi, Cu, Zn, and Mg, and between K and Ba. These elements are enriched with Mn and Al in regions of a nodule where the iron concentration is low. (4) The pronounced inter element relationships suggest that isomorphic substitution is an important factor controlling minor element distribution in manganese nodules. The ions Ni2+. Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ and Ba2+ substitute for Mn2+ in the "manganite" phases, Co(III) occurs with Fe(III) in hydrated iron oxide phases and Ti(IV) in delta-MnO2.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 14 data points
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  • 4
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Heimendahl, M; Hubred, Gale Lee; Fuerstenau, D W; Thomas, G (1976): A transmission electron microscope study of deep-sea manganese nodules. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 23(1), 69-79, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(76)90809-3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Two Pacific Ocean manganese nodules, one from the ocean basin and one from a sea-mount, were examined in transmission electron microscopes at 100 and 650 kV. Of the many specimens examined, ten electron diffraction crystal spot patterns were identified. Sodium birnessite was observed six times and todorokite, Giavanoli's synthetic birnessite, hydrohausmanite and -Fe2O3 one time each. Ferric hydroxide was synthesized in the laboratory and shown to be the same as the primary iron mineral observed in the manganese nodules. The ferric hydroxide had a particle size range from 30 to around 450. Manganese oxide particles were frequently embedded in a mass of smaller ferric hydroxide particles.
    Type: Dataset
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  • 5
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    In:  Supplement to: Fuerstenau, D W; Han, K N (1983): Metallurgy and processing of marine manganese nodules. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 1(1-2), 1-83, https://doi.org/10.1080/08827508308952589
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: This paper reviews the state of the art in processing and extraction of ocean floor manganese nodules. It briefly reviews the mining sites where the abundant rich nodules occur and also discusses the metal distribution in nodules in view of economical processing and extraction of these metal values. The paper discloses in a detailed manner the physical and chemical characteristics of nodules, including porosity, surface area, water content and the effect of temperature on crystal structure of major constituents of nodules. In the extraction aspect of nodules, the paper reviews two different extraction schemes revealed in the literature, namely hydrometallurgical treatment and pyrometallurgical treatment. The hydrometallurgical treatments include acid leaching, ammonia leaching, leaching with reducing agents and leaching after high temperature pre-treatments such as in sulfating rousting, while the pyrometallurgical processes include smelting, chlorination-vaporization and segregation. The paper also covers metal recovery processes from leach liquor. An economic survey of processing nodules has been made in terms of problems associated with metal-marketing, and impact of metal production from nodules on mineral industries.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 66 data points
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 207 (1965), S. 518-520 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Silica powder ('Cabosil') was heated at different tempera tures up to 1,100 C on a tantalum heater strip within an evaporation vessel at a pressure of 10-4-10-5 torr. The amount of powder used was approximately 3 mg, and it was maintained at a given temperature for 10 min before evaporation of the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-5029
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Energy & fuels 2 (1988), S. 241-245 
    ISSN: 1520-5029
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial and engineering chemistry 4 (1965), S. 318-322 
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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