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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: benzodiazepine ; Chile ; agent consumption/ — utilization ; diazepam ; flunitrazepam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BDZ) in Chile in the period 1982–1986 has been studied by the DDD method. National use was assessed using drug import forms as a source of information, assuming that the total amount imported was manufactured and consumed in the same year. The utilization did not show a constant pattern, being 32.7, 33.6, 50.2, 34.9, and 31.3 DDD 1000 per inhabitants per day in 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively. During the study period, diazepam was the most commonly used agent amongst anxiolytic BDZ, reaching a peak of 27.1 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1984, and flunitrazepam was the most popular hypnotic, attaining its maximum in 1986 (6.4 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day). The use of BDZ at community pharmacy level was also evaluated, employing the International Marketing System (IMS) as the source of information. At that level the pattern of utilization showed a constant increase during the study period, being 14.9 and 25.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/per day in 1982 and 1986, respectively. In community pharmacies the anxiolytic BDZ most often consumed was diazepam (maximum 9.1 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1985), and the commonest hypnotic was flunitrazepam (peak 6.0 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1986). National consumption of BDZ appeared higher and more variable than use at the community pharmacy level, but in both there was greater usage of anxiolytic than of hypnotic BDZ, and diazepam and flunitrazepam were the most popular agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0022-2836
    Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis ; X-ray diffraction ; crystallization ; recombinant outer membrane protein
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-24
    Description: Thymocyte differentiation is a complex process involving well-defined sequential developmental stages that ultimately result in the generation of mature T-cells. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation and gene expression profiles at successive human thymus developmental stages. Gain and loss of methylation occurred during thymocyte differentiation, but DNA demethylation was much more frequent than de novo methylation and more strongly correlated with gene expression. These changes took place in CpG-poor regions and were closely associated with T-cell differentiation and TCR function. Up to 88 genes that encode transcriptional regulators, some of whose functions in T-cell development are as yet unknown, were differentially methylated during differentiation. Interestingly, no reversion of accumulated DNA methylation changes was observed as differentiation progressed, except in a very small subset of key genes (RAG1, RAG2, CD8A, PTCRA, etc.), indicating that methylation changes are mostly unique and irreversible events. Our study explores the contribution of DNA methylation to T-cell lymphopoiesis and provides a fine-scale map of differentially methylated regions associated with gene expression changes. These can lay the molecular foundations for a better interpretation of the regulatory networks driving human thymopoiesis.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-22
    Description: Distant stars and planets will remain spatially unresolved for the foreseeable future. It is nonetheless possible to infer aspects of their brightness markings and viewing geometries by analysing disc-integrated rotational and orbital brightness variations. We compute the harmonic light curves, $F_l^m(t)$ , resulting from spherical harmonic maps of intensity or albedo, $Y_l^m(\theta ,\phi )$ , where l and m are the total and longitudinal orders. It has long been known that many non-zero maps have no light curve signature, e.g. odd l 〉 1 belong to the nullspace of harmonic thermal light curves. We show that the remaining harmonic light curves exhibit a predictable inclination dependence. Notably, odd m 〉 1 are present in an inclined light curve, but not seen by an equatorial observer. We therefore suggest that the Fourier spectrum of a thermal light curve may be sufficient to determine the orbital inclination of non-transiting short-period planets, the rotational inclination of stars and brown dwarfs, and the obliquity of directly imaged planets. In the best-case scenario of a nearly edge-on geometry, measuring the m = 3 mode of a star's rotational light curve to within a factor of 2 provides an inclination estimate good to ±6°, assuming that stars have randomly distributed spots. Alternatively, if stars have brightness maps perfectly symmetric about the equator, their light curves will have no m = 3 power, regardless of orientation. In general, inclination estimates will remain qualitative until detailed hydrodynamic simulations and/or occultation maps can be used as a calibrator. We further derive harmonic reflected light curves for tidally locked planets; these are higher-order versions of the well-known Lambert phase curve. We show that a non-uniform planet may have an apparent albedo 25 per cent lower than its intrinsic albedo, even if it exhibits precisely Lambertian phase variations. Finally, we provide low-order analytic expressions for harmonic light curves that can be used for fitting observed photometry; as a general rule, edge-on solutions cannot simply be scaled by sin i to mimic inclined light curves.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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