Previous studies have proposed that a major suture resulted from the collision between the Amazonian and São Francisco-Congo cratons during the Cambrian, following the closure of a supposed Clymene Ocean. The proposal tentatively located this ocean along the Araguaia and Paraguay belts at the eastern margin of the Amazonian Craton, and its southern extension reached the Pampean belt in Argentina. In the present study we will argue that the existence of Ediacaran-Cambrian oceanic lithosphere in central South America is highly unlikely.West Gondwana was assembled during the convergence between the Amazonian, West African, São Francisco-Congo and Rio de La Plata cratons as well as the Saharan Metacraton, leading to the closure of the Goiás-Pharusian Ocean during the Neoproterozoic. Final closure and continental collision resulted in the development of the Transbrasiliano-Kandi mega-shear zone that cuts through several mobile belts, but leaves the cratonic areas totally untouched. Consistent results of radiometric dating along the Transbrasiliano (TB) mega-shear in South America and of metamorphic rocks of the Brasília Belt have indicated that the Neoproterozoic collision finished at ca. 620 Ma. After isostatic uplift, cooling, and denudation, between 590 and 500 Ma, emplacement of undeformed K-rich postorogenic granites represented the main tectonic event. At this time or afterwards, a series of small extensional sedimentary basins formed in graben troughs, most of which are within the TB tectonic corridor. They all were of extensional character, contrasting clearly with the convergent tectonics occurring within the coeval Pampean Orogen in Argentina.The main arguments showing that an Ediacaran to Cambrian oceanic closure in central Brazil is untenable include: (i) the assembly of West Gondwana was completed by ca. 600 Ma, when the convergence between the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de La Plata cratons had already ended. After this, there is no geological evidence of an oceanic lithosphere (for example, ophiolites, magmatic arcs, et cetera), ruling out the possible existence of an Ediacaran or Cambrian Clymene Ocean in Central Brazil; (ii) the Gurupi and Araguaia belts in Brazil, as well as the Bassaride and Rokelide belts in West Africa, are regarded as aulacogenic-type systems formed within an intraplate tectonic setting. Their tectonic history precedes the collision between the Amazonian and São Francisco-Congo cratons, as demonstrated by the linear structures of the Transbrasiliano megashear which truncate the N-S structural trends of the Araguaia Belt; (iii) there is a close correlation between the Corumbá Group of the Paraguay Belt in Brazil and the Arroyo del Soldado Group in Uruguay. These sedimentary sequences belonged to the same Ediacaran continental shelf and this is a powerful indicator for an Ediacaran connection between the Amazonian and Rio de La Plata cratons, which precludes the existence of a wide ocean (for example, the Clymene) between them. On the other hand, the tentative correlation between the Sierras de Cordoba and the Paraguay Belt cannot be accepted, because these are far apart and there is no similarity in lithology, metamorphism, or structural trends; (iv) the Puga paleopole is the most important evidence for the hypothesis of the Cambrian Clymene Ocean, however the age of about 600 Ma for this paleopole, taken on the basis of Sr and C isotopes, is loosely constrained. In addition this is located at low latitude, not far from the present pole, and therefore could be related to a younger remagnetization; (v) the Pampean Orogen is made up of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks constrained between 560 Ma and 520 Ma and therefore was tectonically active during most of the Cambrian. However, at this time, an oceanic lithosphere is not evident in the vicinity of the Paraguay belt, and in central Brazil extensional rather than convergent tectonic processes have been observed.