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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Avena sterilis ; Biomass ; Vegetative growth index ; Transgressive segregation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Ten Avena sterilis L. lines of Mediterranean origin were crossed with six A. sativa L. cultivars from the North Central USA. Additionally, six intervarietal crosses were made among the A. sativa cultivars. F2- derived lines from each cross type (interspecific and intraspecific) were evaluated for transgressive segregation for grain yield and several vigor traits. Mean percentages of transgressive segregates one LSD0.05 above the high parent for vegetative growth index and biomass were 9.0% and 9.8%, respectively, from interspecific crosses, but only 4.5% and 2.9%, respectively, from intraspecific crosses. However, there were two and a half times more high transgressive segregates for grain yield from intra than from interspecific crosses. The maximum vegetative growth index among segregates from interspecific crosses was 0.2 q/day/ha greater than the highest segregate from intraspecific crosses. However, mean harvest index was reduced materially by the introgression of A. sterilis germplasm. Because there was no genetic association between vegetative growth index and harvest index, however, it should be possible to improve both harvest index and vegetative growth index and, thus, the grain yield of cultivated oats.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Avena sterilis ; Biomass ; Vegetative growth rate at anthesis ; Vegetative growth rate at maturity ; Dry weight at anthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary F2-derived oat lines from inter (Avena sativa L. x A. sterilis L.) and intraspecific (among A. sativa cultivars) matings were evaluated in the F3, F4, and F5 generations for heading date, grain and straw yields, biomass, vegetative dry weight at anthesis, vegetative growth rates until anthesis (GRA) and until maturity (GRM), and harvest index. The associations of GRA and GRM with harvest index ranged from zero to slightly negative. The positive correlations of GRA and GRM with grain yield were stronger in inter than in intraspecific matings. Grain yield was positively associated with harvest index in both inter and intraspecific matings. The results suggest the use of A. sterilis x A. sativa matings to improve vegetative growth rate, grain yield, and, to a certain extent, harvest index simultaneously without affecting the growth duration of the crop.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Backcross ; Exotic germplasm ; Wild germplasm ; Epistasis ; Genetic regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Each of two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars were crossed with representatives of three wild sorghum races. Backcross-derived sorghum populations containing 3.125 to 50% wild germplasm were evaluated for grain yield, 100-kernel weight, days to flower, and plant height. Population means increased linearly with backcrossing for kernel weight, increased curvilinearly for grain yield, decreased curvilinearly for plant height, and changed erratically for days to flower. For all traits, the relationship between genetic variance and level of backcrossing deviated significantly from that expected based on an additive model. Genetic variance usually reached a maximum in the BC1 or BC2. The BC1 genetic variance for grain yield, averaged over matings, was twice as large as the average BC0 genetic variance. An epistatic model involving gene regulation is proposed as a plausible explanation for the results.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic genome ; Extranuclear inheritance ; Reciprocal mating designs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cytoplasmic genes of crop species exhibit non-Mendelian inheritance and affect quantitative traits such as biomass and grain yield. Photosynthesis and respiration are physiological processes responsible, in part, for the expression of such quantitative traits and are regulated by enzymes encoded in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Cytoplasmic genes are located in the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Unlike the nuclear genome, the cytoplasmic genomes consist of single, circular, double-stranded molecules of DNA, and in many crop species, the cytoplasmic genomes are inherited solely through the maternal parent. Maternal inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes and Mendelian inheritance of the nuclear genome were used to model the genotypic value of an individual. The model then was utilized to derive genetic variances and covariances for a random-mating population. Finally, the use of reciprocal mating designs to estimate variance components was investigated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oats ; Selection ; Growth rate ; Biological yield ; Independent culling ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Grain yield was selected in Avena sativa X A. sterilis populations of segregates by applying independent culling for harvest index and either vegetative growth index or unit straw weight. Samples of lines intensively selected for harvest index had high harvest index but low grain yield because they had low vigor. Populations intensively selected for growth rate index or unit straw weight had high biological yield but low harvest index. Intensive selection for grain yield per se resulted in samples with high grain yield, but they were late and tall. Samples selected for harvest index at a 25% selection intensity first and subsequently selected for vegetative growth index or unit straw weight had grain yield as high as the samples selected for grain yield per se and vegetative growth index, and they had acceptable heading date and plant height. Backcrosses three and four were best, among the various BC generations, for selecting oat lines with high grain yield and suitable agronomic traits. CI 7463 was superior to CI 8044 as a recurrent parent, and B 445 was inferior to other A. sterilis accessions as a donor parent.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Avena sterilis ; Oats-Grain yield ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Vegetative growth index of cereals is defined as the mean quantity of vegetative tissue produced per unit land area per day. Thus, increasing vegetative growth index is a route by which biomass yield can be increased. The proportion of biomass that is translocated to grain is defined as harvest index. In midwestern USA, where harvest index of oats is optimum at ca. 45% and growth duration is restricted to 100–110 days by high temperature, diseases, and drought, breeding for higher vegetative growth index has been proposed as a way to increase grain yield potential for new cultivars. Twelve matings involving Avena sterilis-derived lines and A. sativa cultivars were used to study vegetative growth index. F2-derived lines from these matings were evalutated for vegetative growth index in microplots in field experiments in three environments with four replicates per environment. Vegetative growth index was found to be a quantitatively inherited trait. Heritability values for this trait averaged 54% when the unit of measurement was a microplot. Additive genetic control for vegetative growth index was indicated in seven matings, but in the remaining five, nonadditive gene action was involved in the inheritance patterns. High vegetative growth index segregates were produced more frequently from matings among unrelated parents than from matings of related ones.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Selective values ; Heterozygote advantage ; Inbreeding coefficient ; Mixed selfing ; Maximum likelihood
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In both radiated and non-radiated oat populations inbreeding coefficients increased more slowly than was expected on the assumption of full selfing and equal selective values for homozygotes and heterozygotes. Assuming 1% outcrossing for oats and a selective value of 1.0 for the mean, the heterozygotes for two loci governing crown rust reaction have an advantage of 50% over the homozygotes. This study supports previous observations that the heterozygote often has a decided advantage in predominantly self-pollinated crops.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oats ; Selection ; Interspecific cross ; Protein ; Grain yield ; Avena
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The method of independent culling levels was applied for simultaneous improvement in grain yield, protein percentage, and protein yield in a population of oat lines from the BC0–BC5 of the interspecific matingAvena sativa ×A. sterilis. Grain yield and protein percentage were subjected to selection with various combination of culling levels to give samples with 2% of the lines from the original population. — Intense selection for grain yield resulted in samples with high grain and protein yields but low protein percentage. Intense selection for protein percentage resulted in samples with high protein percentage but low grain and protein yields. The sample selected for protein yield only showed no significant difference from the recurrent parent for any trait. The recommended regime for improving protein percentage and grain and protein yields simultaneously was one that initially saved approximately 25–50% of the original population on the basis of protein percentage, and then provided intense selection for grain yield on the lines that remained. At least three backcrosses were necessary to obtain lines with high protein percentage and acceptable agronomic traits.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 108 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Crop strains with high values for the selected trait but unacceptable agronomic characteristics are not useful as varieties. In this study, we determined whether selection for groat-oil content in oat (Avena sativa L.) via three recurrent selection regimes caused associated changes in 10 agronomic traits. Random lines of each cycle of selection of each regime were evaluated in a replicated field experiment at two locations. Biomass, grain yield, groat yield, and test weight decreased in all three regimes. Seed weight and plant height decreased in two regimes, and groat fraction in one. Oil yield increased in two regimes and decreased in the other. Plants headed earlier in one and later in another regime over cycles of selection. No changes in harvest index occurred. Heritabilities and genetic variances were relatively high for all traits in each regime. Factor analysis of the phenotypic correlation matrices indicated that simultaneous increases in grain yield and in groat-oil content are possible, that continuous selection for groat-oil content decreases groat fraction and test weight, and that seed weight is strongly and negatively associated with groat-oil content. A new recurrent selection regime for increasing groat-oil content of oat that may overcome the negative responses of agronomic traits was proposed.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 97 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Growth rate and harvest index are the primary components that cause variation in gram yield or oats it growth duration of the crop is fixed as it is in mid western USA. Because harvest index for oats in that region has been optimized 45 %, growth rate is the only remaining trait for improving grain yield.F2 derived oat lines from inter- (Avena sativa L. ×A. Sterilis L.) and intraspecific mating (among A. sativa cultivars) in F3 were selected for vegetative growth rate at maturity (GRM) with an intensity of 8.3%. Predicted genetic gain was 21.5% for GRM, and actual gain was 7%. Changes in grain, biological, and straw yields were higher than gains in GRM when expressed as percentages of the oat population means. Predicted genetic gains were very low for traits unrelated or negatively associated with GRM such as heading data and harvest index. This study suggests that indirect improvement can be made for gain, biological, and straw yields by selecting for GRM.
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