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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cell proliferation ; tumor progression ; EGF receptor ; ErbB ; HER1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an activating ligand for the EGF receptor (HER1/ErbB1) and the high-affinity receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT) in its transmembrane form (proHB-EGF). HB-EGF was immunolocalized within human benign and malignant prostatic tissues, using monospecific antibodies directed against the mature protein and against the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF. Prostate carcinoma cells, normal glandular epithelial cells, undifferentiated fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells were not decorated by the anti-HB-EGF antibodies; however, interstitial and vascular smooth muscle cells were highly reactive, indicating that the smooth muscle compartments are the major sites of synthesis and localization of HB-EGF within the prostate. In marked contrast to prostatic epithelium, proHB-EGF was immunolocalized to seminal vesicle epithelium, indicating differential regulation of HB-EGF synthesis within various epithelia of the reproductive tract. HB-EGF was not overexpressed in this series of cancer tissues, in comparison to the benign tissues. In experiments with LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells, HB-EGF was similar in potency to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in stimulating cell growth. Exogenous HB-EGF and EGF each activated HER1 and HER3 receptor tyrosine kinases and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins to a similar extent. LNCaP cells expressed detectable but low levels of HB-EGF mRNA; however, proHB-EGF was detected at the cell surface indirectly by demonstration of specific sensitivity to DT. HB-EGF is the first HER1 ligand to be identified predominantly as a smooth muscle cell product in the human prostate. Further, the observation that HB-EGF is similar to EGF in mitogenic potency for human prostate carcinoma cells suggests that it may be one of the hypothesized stromal mediators of prostate cancer growth. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:328-338, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: HB-EGF ; cleavage-secretion ; PKC ; ErbB1 ; EGF receptor ; matrix metalloproteinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The phorbol ester, tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), stimulates rapid proteolytic processing of the transmembrane, pro- form of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) at cell surfaces, suggesting the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in the HB-EGF secretion mechanism. To test this possibility, we expressed a chimeric protein, consisting of proHB-EGF fused to placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) near the amino terminus of processed HB-EGF, in NbMC-2 prostate epithelial cells. The proHB-EGF-AP chimera localized to plasma membranes and functioned as a diphtheria toxin receptor. Secreted HB-EGF-AP bound to heparin and exhibited potent growth factor activity. The presence of the AP moiety allowed highly quantitative measurements of cleavage-secretion responses of proHB-EGF to extracellular stimuli. As expected, rapid secretion of HB-EGF-AP was induced in a time- and dose-dependent manner by TPA. However, this was also observed with the Ca2+ionophore, ionomycin, suggesting the involvement of extracellular Ca2+ ions in the secretion mechanism. Ionomycin-induced secretion was inhibited by extracellular calcium chelation but not by the PKC inhibitors, GF109203X, staurosporine, or chelerythrine. The TPA-mediated secretion effect was inhibited by staurosporine, GF109203X, and by pretreatment with TPA, but not by calcium chelation. A small secretion response was induced by thapsigargin, which releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores, but this was completely eliminated by extracellular calcium chelation. Ionomycin- and TPA-induced HB-EGF-AP secretion was not dependent on the presence of the proHB-EGF cytoplasmic domain and was specifically inhibited by the metalloproteinase inhibitors 1,10-phenanthroline and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). These data demonstrate that extracellular Ca2+ influx activates a membrane-associated metalloproteinase to process proHB-EGF by a pathway that does not require PKC. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:143-153, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Interaction of a transformed rat prostate epithelial cell (NbMC-2) with basement membrane gels (Matrigel) has been evaluated using a long-term matrix culture system. NbMC-2 cells, and single-cell clonal derivatives, formed spheroidal multicellular structures (aggregates) on Matrigel surfaces and were weakly invasive or noninvasive during a 1 week period. During subsequent 2-4 week periods, invasive cells originating from the aggregates and exhibiting a fusiform morphology became evident and increased in number in the matrix cultures. This biphasic pattern of behavior did not occur on laminin, type I or type IV collagen, or fibronectin substrates, but it did occur on Matrigel in serum-free medium. Characterization of sublines enriched in fusiform cells indicated that they maintained their distinct morphology with continuous culture. Further, they exhibited significantly greater invasive potential, saturation density, and random motility (chemokinesis) than the parent cell line. Steady-state levels of fibronectin mRNA were highly elevated in the tusiform variants, demonstrating a constitutive alteration in patterns of gene expression coinciding with the altered morphology. These results indicate that clonal NbMC-2 cells differentiate at a reproducible frequency into a more aggressive cell type in response to culture in the basement membrane--like matrix. The altered phenotypic properties appear to be stable since they can be inherited by daughter cells and because they are evident in the absence or matrix. These observations suggest a cell-specific mechanism for promotion of malignant growth by matrix-mediated induction of novel cell properties. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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