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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-11-25
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Remote Sensing of Environment 135 (2013): 77-91, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.03.025.
    Description: Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the ocean may be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll retrievals alone.
    Description: The authors would like to acknowledge the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry program for its long-term support of satellite ocean color research and the Orbital Sciences Corporation and GeoEye who were responsible for the launch, satellite integration and on-orbit management the SeaWiFS mission.
    Keywords: Ocean color ; SeaWiFS ; Phytoplankton ; Colored dissolved organic matter ; Decadal trends
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-17
    Description: © 2009 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 6 (2009): 779-794, doi: 10.5194/bg-6-779-2009
    Description: Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.
    Description: This work was supported by grants from the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program and the NSF Biological Oceanography Program.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Ecological Applications 28 (2018): 749-760, doi: 10.1002/eap.1682.
    Description: The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite‐based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near‐infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100‐m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short‐wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14‐bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration 〈2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity 〈1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3‐d repeat low‐Earth orbit could sample 30‐km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.
    Description: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant Numbers: NNX16AQ34G, NNX14AR62A; National Ocean Partnership Program; NOAA US Integrated Ocean Observing System/IOOS Program Office; Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management Ecosystem Studies program (BOEM) Grant Number: MC15AC00006
    Keywords: Aquatic ; Coastal zone ; Ecology ; Essentail biodiversity variables ; H4 imaging ; Hyperspectral ; Remote sensing ; Vegetation ; Wetland
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-12-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Sathyendranath, S., Brewin, R. J. W., Brockmann, C., Brotas, V., Calton, B., Chuprin, A., Cipollini, P., Couto, A. B., Dingle, J., Doerffer, R., Donlon, C., Dowell, M., Farman, A., Grant, M., Groom, S., Horseman, A., Jackson, T., Krasemann, H., Lavender, S., Martinez-Vicente, V., Mazeran, C., Melin, F., Moore, T. S., Muller, D., Regner, P., Roy, S., Steele, C. J., Steinmetz, F., Swinton, J., Taberner, M., Thompson, A., Valente, A., Zuhlke, M., Brando, V. E., Feng, H., Feldman, G., Franz, B. A., Frouin, R., Gould, R. W., Hooker, S. B., Kahru, M., Kratzer, S., Mitchell, B. G., Muller-Karger, F. E., Sosik, H. M., Voss, K. J., Werdell, J., & Platt, T. An ocean-colour time series for use in climate studies: The experience of the ocean-colour climate change initiative (OC-CCI). Sensors, 19(19), (2019): 4285, doi: 10.3390/s19194285.
    Description: Ocean colour is recognised as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS); and spectrally-resolved water-leaving radiances (or remote-sensing reflectances) in the visible domain, and chlorophyll-a concentration are identified as required ECV products. Time series of the products at the global scale and at high spatial resolution, derived from ocean-colour data, are key to studying the dynamics of phytoplankton at seasonal and inter-annual scales; their role in marine biogeochemistry; the global carbon cycle; the modulation of how phytoplankton distribute solar-induced heat in the upper layers of the ocean; and the response of the marine ecosystem to climate variability and change. However, generating a long time series of these products from ocean-colour data is not a trivial task: algorithms that are best suited for climate studies have to be selected from a number that are available for atmospheric correction of the satellite signal and for retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration; since satellites have a finite life span, data from multiple sensors have to be merged to create a single time series, and any uncorrected inter-sensor biases could introduce artefacts in the series, e.g., different sensors monitor radiances at different wavebands such that producing a consistent time series of reflectances is not straightforward. Another requirement is that the products have to be validated against in situ observations. Furthermore, the uncertainties in the products have to be quantified, ideally on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to facilitate applications and interpretations that are consistent with the quality of the data. This paper outlines an approach that was adopted for generating an ocean-colour time series for climate studies, using data from the MERIS (MEdium spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor of the European Space Agency; the SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor) and MODIS-Aqua (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Aqua) sensors from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA); and VIIRS (Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA). The time series now covers the period from late 1997 to end of 2018. To ensure that the products meet, as well as possible, the requirements of the user community, marine-ecosystem modellers, and remote-sensing scientists were consulted at the outset on their immediate and longer-term requirements as well as on their expectations of ocean-colour data for use in climate research. Taking the user requirements into account, a series of objective criteria were established, against which available algorithms for processing ocean-colour data were evaluated and ranked. The algorithms that performed best with respect to the climate user requirements were selected to process data from the satellite sensors. Remote-sensing reflectance data from MODIS-Aqua, MERIS, and VIIRS were band-shifted to match the wavebands of SeaWiFS. Overlapping data were used to correct for mean biases between sensors at every pixel. The remote-sensing reflectance data derived from the sensors were merged, and the selected in-water algorithm was applied to the merged data to generate maps of chlorophyll concentration, inherent optical properties at SeaWiFS wavelengths, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm. The merged products were validated against in situ observations. The uncertainties established on the basis of comparisons with in situ data were combined with an optical classification of the remote-sensing reflectance data using a fuzzy-logic approach, and were used to generate uncertainties (root mean square difference and bias) for each product at each pixel.
    Description: This work was funded by the Ocean Colour Climate Change initiative of the European Space Agency (Grant Number 4000101437/10/I-LG). We acknowledge additional funding support by NERC through the National Centre for Earth Observation (Grant Number PR140015). Additional funding from a Simons Foundation Grant (549947, SS) is also gratefully acknowledged. V.B. also acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme grant agreement N_ 810139: Project Portugal Twinning for Innovation and Excellence in Marine Science and Earth Observation – PORTWIMS.
    Keywords: ocean colour ; water-leaving radiance ; remote-sensing reflectance ; phytoplankton ; chlorophyll-a ; inherent optical properties ; Climate Change Initiative ; optical water classes ; Essential Climate Variable ; uncertainty characterisation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is concerned with ocean color satellite sensor data intercomparison and merger for biological and interdisciplinary studies of the global oceans. Imagery from different ocean color sensors can now be processed by a single software package using the same algorithms, adjusted by different sensor spectral characteristics, and the same ancillary meteorological and environmental data. This enables cross-comparison and validation of the data derived from satellite sensors and, consequently, creates continuity in ocean color information on both the temporal and spatial scale. The next step in this process is the integration of in situ ocean and atmospheric parameters to enable cross-validation and further refinement of the ocean color methodology. The SIMBIOS Project Office accomplishments during 2000 year are summarized under satellite data processing, data product validation, SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) database, supporting services, sun photometers and calibration activities, and calibration round robins. These accomplishments are described.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: SIMBIOS Project; 8-25; NASA/TM-2001-209976
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: This chapter summarizes ocean color science data product requirements for the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud,ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission's Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and observatory. NASA HQ delivered Level-1 science data product requirements to the PACE Project, which encompass data products to be produced and their associated uncertainties. These products and uncertainties ultimately determine the spectral nature of OCI and the performance requirements assigned to OCI and the observatory. This chapter ultimately serves to provide context for the remainder of this volume, which describes tools developed that allocate these uncertainties into their components, including allowable OCI systematic and random uncertainties, observatory geo location uncertainties, and geophysical model uncertainties.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM?2018-219027/ Vol. 6 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN65850
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In the past decades various algorithms have been developed for the retrieval of water constituents from the measurement of ocean color radiometry, and one of the approaches is spectral optimization. This approach defines an error target (or error function) between the input remote sensing reflectance and the output remote sensing reflectance, with the latter modeled with a few variables that represent the optically active properties (such as the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton and the backscattering coefficient of particles). The values of the variables when the error reach a minimum (optimization is achieved) are considered the properties that form the input remote sensing reflectance; or in other words, the equations are solved numerically. The applications of this approach implicitly assume that the error is a monotonic function of the various variables. Here, with data from numerical simulation and field measurements, we show the shape of the error surface, in a way to justify the possibility of finding a solution of the various variables. In addition, because the spectral properties could be modeled differently, impacts of such differences on the error surface as well as on the retrievals are also presented.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Paper 8175-8 , Some Insights of Spectral Optimization in Ocean Color Inversion; Sep 18, 2011 - Sep 23, 2011; Prague; Czech Republic
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Extending OCI hyperspectral radiance measurements in the ultraviolet to 320 nm on the blue spectrograph enables quantitation of atmospheric total column ozone (O3) for use in ocean color atmospheric correction algorithms. The strong absorption by atmospheric ozone below 340 nm enables the quantification of total column ozone. Other applications are possible but were not investigated due to their exploratory nature and lower priority.The first step in the atmospheric correction processing, which converts top-of-the-atmosphere radiances to water-leaving radiances, is removal of the absorbance by atmospheric trace gases such as water vapor, oxygen, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Details of the atmospheric correction process currently used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) and will be employed for PACE with appropriate modifications, are described by Mobley et al. [2016]. Atmospheric ozone absorbs within the visible to near-infrared spectrum between ~450 nm and 800nm and most appreciably between 530 nm and 650 nm, a spectral region critical for maintaining NASA's chlorophyll-a climate data record and for PACE algorithms planned to characterize phytoplankton community composition and other ocean color products.While satellite-based observations will likely be available during PACE's mission lifetime, the difference in acquisition time with PACE, the coarseness in their spatial resolution, and differences in viewing geometries will introduce significant levels of uncertainties in PACE ocean color data products.
    Keywords: General
    Type: NASA/TM?2018-219027/ Vol. 7 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN65853
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) recently reprocessed the multimission ocean color time-series from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua, and MODIS-Terra using common algorithms and improved instrument calibration knowledge. Here we present an analysis of the quality and consistency of the resulting ocean color retrievals, including spectral water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration, and diffuse attenuation. Statistical analysis of satellite retrievals relative to in situ measurements will be presented for each sensor, as well as an assessment of consistency in the global time-series for the overlapping periods of the missions. Results will show that the satellite retrievals are in good agreement with in situ measurements, and that the sensor ocean color data records are highly consistent over the common mission lifespan for the global deep oceans, but with degraded agreement in higher productivity, higher complexity coastal regions.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC.ABS.6434.2012 , Ocean Optics Conference; Oct 08, 2012 - Oct 12, 2012; Glasgow, Scotland; United Kingdom
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFs and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (tau), angstrom coefficient (alpha), and water-leaving radiance (L(sub w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity, These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity, From those findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%. and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all. 80 distributions (8Rh x 10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We. also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data,
    Keywords: Optics
    Type: Applied Optics; 49; 29; 5545-5560
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