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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). OMIP addresses CMIP6 science questions, investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. It does so by providing a framework for evaluating (including assessment of systematic biases), understanding, and improving ocean, sea-ice, tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and earth system models contributing to CMIP6. Among the WCRP Grand Challenges in climate science (GCs), OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term (climate/decadal) prediction GCs. OMIP provides (a) an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice models run with a prescribed atmospheric forcing; and (b) a protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6. We focus here on the physical component of OMIP, with a companion paper (Orr et al., 2016) detailing methods for the inert chemistry and interactive biogeochemistry. The physical portion of the OMIP experimental protocol follows the interannual Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). Since 2009, CORE-I (Normal Year Forcing) and CORE-II (Interannual Forcing) have become the standard methods to evaluate global ocean/sea-ice simulations and to examine mechanisms for forced ocean climate variability. The OMIP diagnostic protocol is relevant for any ocean model component of CMIP6, including the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments), historical simulations, FAFMIP (Flux Anomaly Forced MIP), C4MIP (Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate MIP), DAMIP (Detection and Attribution MIP), DCPP (Decadal Climate Prediction Project), ScenarioMIP, HighResMIP (High Resolution MIP), as well as the ocean/sea-ice OMIP simulations
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Sears Foundation for Marine Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Marine Research 62 (2004): 169-193, doi:10.1357/002224004774201681.
    Description: It is well known that the barotropic, wind-driven, single-gyre ocean model reaches an inertially-dominated equilibrium with unrealistic circulation strength when the explicit viscosity is reduced to realistically low values. It is shown here that the overall circulation strength can be controlled nonlocally by retaining thin regions of enhanced viscosity parameterizing the effects of increased mixing and topographic interaction near the boundaries. The control is possible even when the inertial boundary layer width is larger than the enhanced viscosity region, as eddy fluxes of vorticity from the interior transport vorticity across the mean streamlines of the inertial boundary current to the frictional region. In relatively inviscid calculations the eddies are the major means of flux across interior mean streamlines.
    Description: B.F.-K. was supported in part by an ONR-supported NDSEG Fellowship, an MIT Presidential Fellowship, a GFDL/Princeton University postdoctoral fellowship, and a NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral fellowship (managed by UCAR). Both authors were supported in part by NSF OCE 9910654.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution June 2003
    Description: Inertial terms dominate the single-gyre ocean model and prevent western-intensification when the viscosity is small. This occurs long before the oceanically-appropriate parameter range. It is demonstrated here that the circulation is controlled if a mechanism for ultimate removal of vorticity exists, even if it is active only in a narrow region near the boundary. Vorticity removal is modeled here as a viscosity enhanced very near the solid boundaries to roughly parameterize missing boundary physics like topographic interaction and three dimensional turbulence over the shelf. This boundary-enhanced viscosity allows western-intensified mean flows even when the inertial boundary width, is much wider than the frictional region because eddies flux vorticity from within the interior streamlines to the frictional region for removal. Using boundary-enhanced viscosity, western-intensified calculations are possible with lower interior viscosity than in previous studies. Interesting behaviors result: a boundary-layer balance novel to the model, calculations with promise for eddy parameterization, eddy-driven gyres rotating opposite the wind, and temporal complexity including basin resonances. I also demonstrate that multiple-gyre calculations have weaker mean circulation than single-gyres with the same viscosity and subtropical forcing. Despite traditional understanding, almost no inter-gyre flux occurs if no-slip boundary conditions are used. The inter-gyre eddy flux is in control only with exactly symmetric gyres and free slip boundaries. Even without the inter-gyre flux, the multiple-gyre circulation is weak because of sinuous instabilities on the jet which are not present in the single-gyre model. These modes efficiently flux vorticity to the boundary and reduce the circulation without an inter-gyre flux, postponing inertial domination to much smaller viscosities. Then sinuous modes in combination with boundary-enhanced viscosity can control the circulation.
    Keywords: Eddies ; Turbulent boundary layer ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; Mathematical models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
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  • 4
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    Sears Foundation for Marine Research
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Sears Foundation for Marine Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Marine Research 62 (2004): 195-232, doi:10.1357/002224004774201690.
    Description: Using boundary-enhanced viscosity to control the mean circulation, a simple model can be created and used for study of strong inertial effects in a western-intensified calculation. The simplicity allows for a greater number of strongly-inertial numerical experiments than computationally feasible in a general circulation model. This paper is an introduction to the behavior of this model, covering its general features. Some of the inertial phenomena, including the primary balances of the boundary current and basin interior, the temporal behavior, and the changes in the mean state across parameter space are presented. The analysis of these phenomena focuses on the effects of eddies and the type of eddies present. The low interior viscosity allows for more pronounced eddy effects. As this model is intended for use in future studies, many of the diagnostic tools found to be useful here are likely to be reused effectively.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 35 (2005): 1263–1278, doi:10.1175/JPO2743.1.
    Description: Multiple-gyre ocean models have a weaker mean subtropical circulation than single-gyre calculations with the same viscosity and subtropical forcing. Traditionally, this reduction in circulation is attributed to an intergyre eddy vorticity flux that cancels some of the wind input, part of which does not require a Lagrangian mass exchange (theory of dissipative meandering). Herein the intergyre eddy vorticity flux is shown to be a controlling factor in barotropic models at high Reynolds number only with exactly antisymmetric gyres and slip boundary conditions. Almost no intergyre flux occurs when no-slip boundary conditions are used, yet the subtropical gyre is still significantly weaker in multiple-gyre calculations. Sinuous modes of instability present only in multiple gyres are shown here to vastly increase the eddy vorticity transport efficiency. This increase in efficiency reduces the mean circulation necessary for equilibrium. With slip boundary conditions, the intergyre eddy transport is possibly much larger. However, with wind forcing relevant for the ocean—two unequal gyres—a mean flow flux of vorticity rather than an eddy flux between the regions of opposing wind forcing is increasingly important with increasing Reynolds number. A physical rationalization of the differing results is provided by diagnosis of the equilibrium vorticity budget and eddy transport efficiency. Calculations varying 1) boundary conditions, 2) sources and sinks of vorticity, 3) eddy transport efficiency, and 4) the degree of symmetry of the gyres are discussed.
    Description: The author was supported by an ONR-supported NDSEG fellowship, an MIT Presidential Fellowship, NSF OCE 9910654, a Princeton University/GFDL fellowship, and a NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral fellowship managed by UCAR.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 7781–7801, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00442.1.
    Description: Air–sea fluxes from the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) are compared with the Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment (CORE) dataset to assess present-day mean biases, variability errors, and late twentieth-century trend differences. CCSM4 is improved over the previous version, CCSM3, in both air–sea heat and freshwater fluxes in some regions; however, a large increase in net shortwave radiation into the ocean may contribute to an enhanced hydrological cycle. The authors provide a new baseline for assessment of flux variance at annual and interannual frequency bands in future model versions and contribute a new metric for assessing the coupling between the atmospheric and oceanic planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes of any climate model. Maps of the ratio of CCSM4 variance to CORE reveal that variance on annual time scales has larger error than on interannual time scales and that different processes cause errors in mean, annual, and interannual frequency bands. Air temperature and specific humidity in the CCSM4 atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) follow the sea surface conditions much more closely than is found in CORE. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are less of a negative feedback to sea surface temperature warming in the CCSM4 than in the CORE data with the model’s PBL allowing for more heating of the ocean’s surface.
    Description: The CESM project is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Science (BER) of the U.S. Department of Energy. S. Stevensonwas supported byNASAGrantNNX09A020H and B. Fox-Kemper by Grants NSF 0934737 and NASA NNX09AF38G.
    Description: 2013-05-15
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Boundary layer ; Sea surface temperature ; Climate models ; Coupled models ; Model evaluation/performance
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-13
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    Description: The development of various volume penalization techniques for use in modeling topographical features in the ocean is the focus of this paper. Due to the complicated geometry inherent in ocean boundaries, the stair-step representation used in the majority of current global ocean circulation models causes accuracy and numerical stability problems. Brinkman penalization is the basis for the methods developed here and is a numerical technique used to enforce no-slip boundary conditions through the addition of a term to the governing equations. The second aspect to this proposed approach is that all governing equations are solved on a nonuniform, adaptive grid through the use of the adaptive wavelet collocation method. This method solves the governing equations on temporally and spatially varying meshes, which allows higher effective resolution to be obtained with less computational cost. When penalization methods are coupled with the adaptive wavelet collocation method, the flow near the boundary can be well-resolved. It is especially useful for simulations of boundary currents and tsunamis, where flow near the boundary is important. This paper will give a thorough analysis of these methods applied to the shallow water equations, as well as some preliminary work applying these methods to volume penalization for bathymetry representation for use in either the nonhydrostatic or hydrostatic primitive equations. ©2012 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2010-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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