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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-26
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Moya, Aurélie; Huisman, L; Forêt, S; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Hayward, D C; Ball, E E; Miller, David J (2015): Rapid acclimation of juvenile corals to CO2-mediated acidification by upregulation of heat shock protein and Bcl-2 genes. Molecular Ecology, 24(2), 438-452, https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13021
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: Corals play a key role in ocean ecosystems and carbonate balance, but their molecular response to ocean acidification remains unclear. The only previous whole-transcriptome study documented extensive disruption of gene expression, particularly of genes encoding skeletal organic matrix proteins, in juvenile corals (Acropora millepora) after short-term (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2. In this study, whole-transcriptome analysis was used to compare the effects of such 'acute' (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 with a longer ('prolonged'; 9 d) period of exposure beginning immediately post-fertilization. Far fewer genes were differentially expressed under the 9-d treatment, and although the transcriptome data implied wholesale disruption of metabolism and calcification genes in the acute treatment experiment, expression of most genes was at control levels after prolonged treatment. There was little overlap between the genes responding to the acute and prolonged treatments, but heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock factors (HSFs) were over-represented amongst the genes responding to both treatments. Amongst these was an HSP70 gene previously shown to be involved in acclimation to thermal stress in a field population of another acroporid coral. The most obvious feature of the molecular response in the 9-d treatment experiment was the upregulation of five distinct Bcl-2 family members, the majority predicted to be anti-apoptotic. This suggests that an important component of the longer term response to elevated CO2 is suppression of apoptosis. It therefore appears that juvenile A. millepora have the capacity to rapidly acclimate to elevated pCO2, a process mediated by upregulation of specific HSPs and a suite of Bcl-2 family members.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 568 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Moya, Aurélie; Huisman, L; Ball, E E; Hayward, D C; Grasso, L C; Chua, C M; Woo, H N; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Forêt, S; Miller, David J (2012): Whole transcriptome analysis of the coral Acropora millepora reveals complex responses to CO2-driven acidification during the initiation of calcification. Molecular Ecology, 21(10), 2440-2454, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05554.x
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: The impact of ocean acidification (OA) on coral calcification, a subject of intense current interest, is poorly understood in part because of the presence of symbionts in adult corals. Early life history stages of Acropora spp. provide an opportunity to study the effects of elevated CO(2) on coral calcification without the complication of symbiont metabolism. Therefore, we used the Illumina RNAseq approach to study the effects of acute exposure to elevated CO(2) on gene expression in primary polyps of Acropora millepora, using as reference a novel comprehensive transcriptome assembly developed for this study. Gene ontology analysis of this whole transcriptome data set indicated that CO(2) -driven acidification strongly suppressed metabolism but enhanced extracellular organic matrix synthesis, whereas targeted analyses revealed complex effects on genes implicated in calcification. Unexpectedly, expression of most ion transport proteins was unaffected, while many membrane-associated or secreted carbonic anhydrases were expressed at lower levels. The most dramatic effect of CO(2) -driven acidification, however, was on genes encoding candidate and known components of the skeletal organic matrix that controls CaCO(3) deposition. The skeletal organic matrix effects included elevated expression of adult-type galaxins and some secreted acidic proteins, but down-regulation of other galaxins, secreted acidic proteins, SCRiPs and other coral-specific genes, suggesting specialized roles for the members of these protein families and complex impacts of OA on mineral deposition. This study is the first exhaustive exploration of the transcriptomic response of a scleractinian coral to acidification and provides an unbiased perspective on its effects during the early stages of calcification.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 2489 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: There are increasing concerns that the current rate of climate change might outpace the ability of reef-building corals to adapt to future conditions. Work on model systems has shown that environmentally induced alterations in DNA methylation can lead to phenotypic acclimatization. While DNA methylation has been reported in corals and is thought to associate with phenotypic plasticity, potential mechanisms linked to changes in whole-genome methylation have yet to be elucidated. We show that DNA methylation significantly reduces spurious transcription in the coral Stylophora pistillata . Furthermore, we find that DNA methylation also reduces transcriptional noise by fine-tuning the expression of highly expressed genes. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns of corals subjected to long-term pH stress showed widespread changes in pathways regulating cell cycle and body size. Correspondingly, we found significant increases in cell and polyp sizes that resulted in more porous skeletons, supporting the hypothesis that linear extension rates are maintained under conditions of reduced calcification. These findings suggest an epigenetic component in phenotypic acclimatization that provides corals with an additional mechanism to cope with environmental change.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-09-07
    Description: Context-dependent gene expression in eukaryotes is controlled by several mechanisms including cytosine methylation that primarily occurs in the CG dinucleotides (CpGs). However, less frequent non-CpG asymmetric methylation has been found in various cell types, such as mammalian neurons, and recent results suggest that these sites can repress transcription independently of CpG contexts. In addition, an emerging view is that CpG hemimethylation may arise not only from deregulation of cellular processes but also be a standard feature of the methylome. Here, we have applied a novel approach to examine whether asymmetric CpG methylation is present in a sparsely methylated genome of the honeybee, a social insect with a high level of epigenetically driven phenotypic plasticity. By combining strand-specific ultra-deep amplicon sequencing of illustrator genes with whole-genome methylomics and bioinformatics, we show that rare asymmetrically methylated CpGs can be unambiguously detected in the honeybee genome. Additionally, we confirm differential methylation between two phenotypically and reproductively distinct castes, queens and workers, and offer new insight into the heterogeneity of brain methylation patterns. In particular, we challenge the assumption that symmetrical methylation levels reflect symmetry in the underlying methylation patterns and conclude that hemimethylation may occur more frequently than indicated by methylation levels. Finally, we question the validity of a prior study in which most of cytosine methylation in this species was reported to be asymmetric.
    Keywords: molecular biology, genomics, computational biology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-03-28
    Description: In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the development of a larva into either a queen or worker depends on differential feeding with royal jelly and involves epigenomic modifications by DNA methyltransferases. To understand the role of DNA methylation in this process we sequenced the larval methylomes in both queens and workers. We show that the number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in larval head is significantly increased relative to adult brain (2,399 vs. 560) with more than 80% of DMGs up-methylated in worker larvae. Several highly conserved metabolic and signaling pathways are enriched in methylated genes, underscoring the connection between dietary intake and metabolic flux. This includes genes related to juvenile hormone and insulin, two hormones shown previously to regulate caste determination. We also tie methylation data to expressional profiling and describe a distinct role for one of the DMGs encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an important regulator of metabolism. We show that alk is not only differentially methylated and alternatively spliced in Apis, but also seems to be regulated by a cis-acting, anti-sense non–protein-coding transcript. The unusually complex regulation of ALK in Apis suggests that this protein could represent a previously unknown node in a process that activates downstream signaling according to a nutritional context. The correlation between methylation and alternative splicing of alk is consistent with the recently described mechanism involving RNA polymerase II pausing. Our study offers insights into diet-controlled development in Apis.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis . We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO 2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping–pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia . The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, S; Karlsen, Bard Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D (2018): Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing. Genome Biology and Evolution, 10(2), 410-426, https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy003
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping–pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 333 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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