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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere). These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected as well as a record of the measurement consistency demonstrated during INTEX-B. It is the primary goal to provide necessary information for the future research to determine if the observations from different INTEX-B platforms/instrument are consistent within the PI reported uncertainties and used in integrated analysis. This paper may also contribute to the formulation strategy for future instrument developments. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NF1676L-11805
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 111
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) and use an observationally constrained chemical box model to infer total gas-phase inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)) over the tropical western Pacific Ocean (tWPO) during the CONTRAST field campaign (January-February 2014). The observed BrO and inferred Bry profiles peak in the marine boundary layer (MBL), suggesting the need for a bromine source from sea-salt aerosol (SSA), in addition to organic bromine (CBry ). Both profiles are found to be C-shaped with local maxima in the upper free troposphere (FT). The median tropospheric BrO vertical column density (VCD) was measured as 1.6 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2), compared to model predictions of 0.9 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in GEOS-Chem (CBr(sub y) but no SSA source), 0.4 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in CAM-Chem (CBr(sub y) and SSA), and 2.1 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in GEOS-Chem (CBry and SSA). Neither global model fully captures the Cshape of the Br(sun y) profile. A local Br(sub y) maximum of 3.6 ppt (2.9-4.4 ppt; 95% confidence interval, CI) is inferred between 9.5 and 13.5 km in air masses influenced by recent convective outflow. Unlike BrO, which increases from the convective tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the aged TTL, gas-phase Br(sub y) decreases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL. Analysis of gas-phase Br(sub y) against multiple tracers (CFC-11, H2O/O3 ratio, and potential temperature) reveals a Br(sub y) minimum of 2.7 ppt (2.3-3.1 ppt; 95% CI) in the aged TTL, which agrees closely with a stratospheric injection of 2.6 +/- 0.6 ppt of inorganic Br(sub y) (estimated from CFC-11 correlations), and is remarkably insensitive to assumptions about heterogeneous chemistry. Bry increases to 6.3 ppt (5.6-7.0 ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "middleworld" and 6.9 ppt (6.5-7.3 ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "overworld". The local Br(sub y) minimum in the aged TTL is qualitatively (but not quantitatively) captured by CAM-Chem, and suggests a more complex partitioning of gas-phase and aerosol Br(sub y) species than previously recognized. Our data provide corroborating evidence that inorganic bromine sources (e.g., SSA-derived gas-phase Br(sub y) ) are needed to explain the gas-phase Br(sub y) budget in the upper free troposphere and TTL. They are also consistent with observations of significant bromide in Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere aerosols. The total Br(sub y) budget in the TTL is currently not closed, because of the lack of concurrent quantitative measurements of gas-phase Br(sub y) species (i.e., BrO, HOBr, HBr, etc.) and aerosol bromide. Such simultaneous measurements are needed to (1) quantify SSA-derived Br(sub y) in the upper FT, (2) test Br(sub y) partitioning, and possibly explain the gas-phase Br(sub y) minimum in the aged TTL, (3) constrain heterogeneous reaction rates of bromine, and (4) account for all of the sources of Br(sub y) to the lower stratosphere.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN55227 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 17; 24; 15245-15270
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