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  • 1
    Call number: 21/STR 05/09
    In: Scientific technical report
    Type of Medium: GFZ publications
    Pages: vi, 21 S.
    Series Statement: Scientific technical report / Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam 05/09
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: STR 11/14
    In: Scientific technical report
    Description / Table of Contents: This short report describes the first attempt at obtaining a preliminary cross-border risk model for Central Asia starting from datasets that were already available at the beginning of the EMCA Project.
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Scientific technical report / Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ 11/14
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
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    GFZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum
    Publication Date: 2017-06-10
    Description: Present-day sea-level change around Greenland is examined by assessing the roleplayed by glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). We consider the contributions from: (1) the ongoing GIA due to changes in the extent and thickness of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (2) the equivalent signal associated with the continental ice masses located outside of Greenland, and (3) present-day changes in the GIS. Changes in the GIS arising from the last glacial-interglacial transition generally result in falling sea level today. The contribution from ice-load changes outside of Greenland causes rising sea level, owing to Greenland's location on the collapsing forebulge that surrounds the former North American ice sheets. Combining predictions of these contributions gives results showing rising sea level in the southwest and falling sea level in the north and east. However, this is strongly dependent upon the neoglacial part of the GIS's history. The present-day behaviour of the GIS is predicted to cause falling sea level with rates of several mm yr?1 around areas experiencing the larger ice-load changes. The available tide-gauge data are considered unusable by the standards of many workers. Nevertheless, we compare rates of local sea-level change inferred from this type of data with our predictions. In Southern Greenland, where the tide-gauge stations are located, sea level is predicted to be rising at a rate of 4 to 5 mm yr?1. Our predictions match most of the rates obtained from the tide-gauge time series, with the exception of Qaqortoq where the inferred rates may also reect additional oceanic and meteorological effects. Similarly, our predictions are consistent with GPS observations, with again the exception of Qaqortoq.
    Description: report
    Keywords: TOG 000 ; VSY 000 ; Isostasie {Geophysik} ; Polargebiete {Fossile Energieträger}
    Language: English
    Type: article , publishedVersion
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Testing and analysis of shock wave characteristics such as detonators and ground shock propagation frequently require a method of measuring velocity and displacement of the surface of interest. One method of measurement is Doppler interferometry. The VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) uses Doppler interferometry and has gained wide acceptance as the preferred tool for shock measurement. An important asset of VISAR is that it measures velocity and displacement nonintrusively.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: SAND-92-1359C , NASA. Stennis Space Center, The First NASA Aerospace Pyrotechnic Systems Workshop; p 257-273
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Liu, Lin; Wahr, John; Howat, Ian M; Joughin, Ian; van Dam, Tonie; Fleming, Kevin (2010): GPS measurements of crustal uplift near Jakobshavn Isbræ due to glacial ice mass loss. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(B9), B09405, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007490
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: We analyze 2006-2009 data from four continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers located between 5 and 150 km from the glacier Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. The GPS stations were established on bedrock to determine the vertical crustal motion due to the unloading of ice from Jakobshavn Isbrae. All stations experienced uplift, but the uplift rate at Kangia North, only 5 km from the glacier front, was about 10 mm/yr larger than the rate at Ilulissat, located only ~45 km further away. This suggests that most of the uplift is due to the unloading of the Earth's surface as Jakobshavn thins and loses mass. Our estimate of Jakobshavn's contribution to uplift rates at Kangia North and Ilulissat are 14.6 ± 1.7 mm/yr and 4.9 ± 1.1 mm/yr, respectively. The observed rates are consistent with a glacier thinning model based on repeat altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), which shows that Jakobshavn lost mass at an average rate of 22 ± 2 km**3/yr between 2006 and 2009. At Kangia North and Ilulissat, the predicted uplift rates computed using thinning estimates from the ATM laser altimetry are 12.1 ± 0.9 mm/yr and 3.2 ± 0.3 mm/yr, respectively. The observed rates are slightly larger than the predicted rates. The fact that the GPS uplift rates are much larger closer to Jakobshavn than further away, and are consistent with rates inferred using the ATM-based glacier thinning model, shows that GPS measurements of crustal motion are a potentially useful method for assessing ice-mass change models.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2007-04-01
    Description: We examine the dependence of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to changes in the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland, on the underlying viscosity structure. Iceland offers a unique case study for GIA research, with a thinner elastic lithosphere underlain by a low-viscosity zone or asthenosphere, as opposed to regions such as Fennoscandia or North America described by a thicker lithosphere, while not necessarily featuring an asthenosphere. A laterally homogeneous spherical earth model is used consisting of an elastic lithosphere, a viscoelastic asthenosphere, a viscoelastic upper and lower mantle and a fluid core. We examine the response of the earth model to three ice models with circular plans and cross-section profiles based on the assumption of perfectly plastic material, but with different load histories. These are: (1) A history where the ice cap grows from a AD 900 minimum to a maximum at 1890, followed by a uniform decrease until 1991, continuing to the present day at an average rate based on recent mass-balance measurements, (2) a history that is the same as the first, except for constant ice volumes prior to 1890, and (3) a history that is again the same as the first model, except that the post-1991 changes correspond to the measured mass-balance values. We first compare the response to each ice model using typical earth-model parameters for Iceland presented in the literature. We then undertake a parameter-space search, where we assess the importance of lithosphere thickness, asthenosphere viscosity and basal asthenosphere depth, to predicted vertical-displacement rates, and compare them to rates determined from GPS measurements obtained from campaigns conducted between 1991 and 1999. The earth-viscosity structure that provides the optimum predictions with respect to the GPS-derived vertical-displacement rates consists of an elastic lithosphere with a thickness of between 20 and 30 km, an asthenosphere viscosity between 1 and 2 × 1018 Pa s, and a basal asthenosphere depth between 250 km and possibly greater than 400 km. We find that the very low asthenosphere viscosity values of ca . 1017 Pa s sometimes suggested in the literature are not necessary to account for the rapid vertical-displacement rates observed, which are the result of the contemporary decrease in the mass of the ice cap not considered previously. ©2007 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-03-17
    Description: A seismic antenna approach based on the generalized zero-lag cross-correlation method for rapid earthquake localization is proposed. This method is intended to be applied primarily for early warning, whenever the epicentre-to-target distances guarantee enough lead-time, rapid response purposes, and for those circumstances when a seismogenic area is not directly accessible with seismic stations or/and a network of instruments is concentrated within the area to be warned. The procedure we propose aims to provide useful information for magnitude determination and shake-maps generation. Indeed, it relies only on the first P-wave triggered arrivals from seismic stations, and is designed to work in real-time for the localization of events occurring outside of the network, that is, under conditions that might be detrimental to standard localization approaches. The procedure can by summarized by a few preliminary pre-seismic and real-time co-seismic steps. In the pre-seismic time-frame, for the cases where a large and dense network exists, waiting for all stations to trigger could dramatically reduce the available lead-time for the warning. Therefore, in such cases, the network could profitably be divided into sub-arrays, while also taking advantage of available earthquake recordings or simulated data sets. During the co-seismic time-frame, the main operations are: (1) individual on-site triggering by the P-wave of the seismic stations (e.g. by a STA/LTA algorithm); (2) real-time communication of key parameters (e.g. P-wave arrival time, and signal quality) to a main centre by SMS/WLAN; (3) setup of a pseudo data set, composed by a Gaussian function centred at the P-time, and with a bell width that can be set up proportional to the trigger signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); (4) calculation of a coherency map for the sub-array with triggered stations (preliminary sub-array location); and (5) stacking of coherency maps from the different sub-arrays (final location). By the stack of coherency maps estimated by the different sub-arrays in the last step of the procedure, the epicentral area’s location may be better constrained. This innovative approach for rapid localization was applied to both synthetic data, and real observations of two small earthquakes that occurred in the Marmara Sea, Turkey, which were recorded by the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System. ©2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 1383-4649
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-157X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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