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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: pp. 91-102
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) which ceased operations in 1986 after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995 on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 17 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editor's intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indices.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TM-104566-VOL-18 , REPT-95B00038-VOL-18 , NAS 1.15:104566-VOL-18
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The results of the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-1), which was held at the Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS) at San Diego State University (SDSU) on 27-31 July 1992 are presetend. Oceanographic radiometers to be used in the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Program will be calibrated by individuals from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), CHORS, and seven other laboratories. The purpose of the SIRREX experiments is to assure the radiometric standards used in all of these laboratories are referenced to the same scales of spectral irradiance and radiance, which will be maintained by GSFC and periodically recalibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The spectral irradiance scale of GSFC's FEL lamp number F269 (recalibrated by NIST in October 1992) was transferred to lamps belonging to the 9 participating laboratories; l set of lamp transfer measurements (involving 4 of the lamps) was precise to within less than 1 percent and meets SeaWiFS goals, but a second set (involving another 14 lamps) did not. The spectral radiance scale of the GSFC 40-inch integrating sphere source was transferred to integrating sphere radiance sources belonging to four of the other laboratories. Reflectance plaques, used for irradiance-to-radiance transfer by five of the laboratories, were compared, but spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF's) were not determined quantitatively. Also reported are results of similar comparisons (in October 1992) between the GSFC scales of spectral irradiance and radiance and those used by the Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) to calibrate and characterize the SeaWiFS instrument. This first set of intercalibration round-robin experiments was a valuable learning experience for all participants, and led to several important procedural changes, which will be implemented in the second SIRREX, to be held at CHORS in June 1993.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TM-104566-VOL-14 , REPT-93B00117-VOL-14 , NAS 1.15:104566-VOL-14
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: Beginning with the upcoming launch of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), there should be almost continuous measurements of ocean color for nearly 20 years if all of the presently planned national and international missions are implemented. This data set will present a unique opportunity to understand the coupling of physical and biological processes in the world ocean. The presence of multiple ocean color sensors will allow the eventual development of an ocean color observing system that is both cost effective and scientifically based. This report discusses the issues involved and makes recommendations intended to ensure the maximum scientific return from this unique set of planned ocean color missions. An executive summary is included with this document which briefly discusses the primary issues and suggested actions to be considered.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TM-104566-VOL-17 , REPT-94B00091-VOL-17 , NAS 1.15:104566-VOL-17
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2002-206892/VOL20 , Rept-2002-02646-0-VOL20 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL20
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2002-206892/VOL19 , Rept-2002-02645-0/VOL19 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL19
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report documents the scientific activities during the second Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (Sea- WIFS) Bio-Optical Algorithm Round-Robin (SeaBOARR-99) field campaign, which took place from 2 May to 7 June 1999 on board the Royal Research Ship James Clark Ross during the eighth Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise (AMT-8). The ultimate objective of the SeaBOARR activity is to evaluate the effect of different measurement protocols on bio-optical algorithms using data from a variety of field campaigns. The SeaBOARR-99 field campaign was concerned with collecting a high quality data set of simultaneous in-water and above-water radiometric measurements. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) use four different surface glint correction methods to compute water-leaving radiances, Lw(lambda), from above-water data; b) use two different in-water profiling systems and three different methods to compute Lw(lambda) from in-water data; c) use instruments with a common calibration history to minimize intercalibration uncertainties; d) monitor the calibration stability of the instruments in the field with the original SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM) and a commercial, second-generation device called the SQM-II, thereby allowing a distinction between differences in methods from changes in instrument performance; and e) compare the Lw(lambda) values estimated from the above- water and in- water measurements. In addition to describing the instruments deployed and the data collected, a preliminary analysis of part of the SeaBOARR-99 data set is presented (using only the data collected during clear sky, calm sea, and Case-I waters).
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-206892/VOL8 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL8 , Rept-2000-01143-0
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report documents the fifth Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-5), which was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on 23-30 July 1996. The agenda for SIRREX-5 was established based on recommendations made during SIRREX-4. For the first time in a SIRREX activity, instrument intercomparisons were performed at field sites, which were near NIST. The goals of SIRREX-5 were to continue the emphasis on training and the implementation of standard measurement practices, investigate the calibration methods and measurement chains in use by the oceanographic community, provide opportunities for discussion, and intercompare selected instruments. As at SIRREX-4, the day was divided between morning lectures and afternoon laboratory exercises. A set of core laboratory sessions were performed: 1) in-water radiant flux measurements; 2) in-air radiant flux measurements; 3) spectral radiance responsivity measurements using the plaque method; 4) device calibration or stability monitoring with portable field sources; and 5) various ancillary exercises designed to illustrate radiometric concepts. Before, during, and after SIRREX-5, NIST calibrated the SIRREX-5 participating radiometers for radiance and irradiance responsivity. The Facility for Automated Spectroradiometric Calibrations (FASCAL) was scheduled for spectral irradiance calibrations for standard lamps during SIRREX-5. Three lamps from the SeaWiFS community were submitted and two were calibrated.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-1999-206892/VOL7 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL7 , Rept-99E01696
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR) was built for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project as part of an Interagency Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SXR is a multichannel radiometer designed to verify and compare measurements of spectral radiance at six discrete wavelengths in the visible and near infrared for various calibration sources in the SeaWiFS Project. In addition, the SXR is used to compare these sources to standards of spectral radiance maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The SXR was designed, built, and thoroughly characterized in the Optical Technology Division at NIST. A unique optical design provides six independent optical paths, each equipped with a temperature stabilized interference filter and silicon photodiode. A separate beam path through the input lens is used to visually align the SXR. The entrance windows for each channel overlap at the source, with each channel sampling a unique solid angle within the field of view of the SXR; this allows for simultaneous sampling of all channels. The combined standard relative uncertainty of spectral radiance measurements with the SXR is estimated to be between 0.6% and 1.3%. This report describes the design and construction of the SXR in detail, and gives the results of the optical characterization and calibrations done at NIST. The SXR has been used for several intercomparisons which include several SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs); those done at the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) laboratories in Honolulu, Hawaii; at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan; and Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) in Germantown, Maryland. Thorough optical characterization and calibration of the SXR was essential to the successful application of the radiometer for these measurements.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-1998-206892/VOL1 , Rept-98B00075/VOL1 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL1
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) 'James Clark Ross' during the irst Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-1), 21 September to 24 October 1995. The ship sailed from Grimsby (England) for Montevideo (Uruguay) and then continued on to Stanley (Falkland Islands). The primary objective of the AMT program is to investigate basic biological processes in the open Atlantic Ocean over very broad spatial scales. For AMT-1, the meridional range covered was approximately 50 deg N to 50 deg S or nearly 8,000 nmi. The measurements to be taken during the AMT cruises are fundamental for the calibration, validation, and continuing understanding of remotely sensed observations of biological oceanography. They are also important for understanding plankton community structure over latitudinal scales and the role of the world ocean in global carbon cycles. During AMT-1 a variety of instruments were used to map the physical, chemical, and biological structure of the upper 200 m of the water column. Ocean color measurements were made using state-of-the-art sensors, whose calibration was traceable to the highest international standards. New advances in fluorometry were used to measure photosynthetic activity, which was then used to further interpret primary productivity. A unique set of samples and data were collected for the planktonic assemblages that vary throughout the range of the transect. These data will yield new interpretations on community composition and their role in carbon cycling. While the various provinces of the Atlantic Ocean were being crossed, the partial pressure of CO2 was related to biological productivity. This comparison revealed the areas of drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and how these areas relate to the surrounding biological productivity. These data, plus the measurements of light attenuation and phytoplankton optical properties, will be used as a primary input for basin-scale biological productivity models to help develop ecosystem dynamics models which will be important for improving the forecasting abilities of modelers. The AMT program is also attempting to meet the needs of international agencies in their implementation of Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS), a program to develop a methodology and operational capability to combine data products from the various ocean color satellite missions.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA-TM-104566, Vol. 35 , 96B00063 , NAS 1.15:104566, Vol. 35
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