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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 36 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: Recognizing the need to formulate policy strategies for the changes it faces, Myanmar started a multifaceted reform process in 2011. But speeding up development requires a multipronged but more coherent strategy targeted at strong and resilient growth, employment generation and, ultimately, rapid reduction of poverty. The government needs to carefully prioritize and sequence reforms, and identify and address the constraints to allow acceleration of economic growth by expanding the large domestic market and developing a vibrant manufacturing export sector that can generate substantial employment. This paper briefly reviews Myanmar's history and its legacy, examines the economy and some of the main policy reforms undertaken since 2011, assesses development potential, and outlines medium- and long-term growth strategy based on the country's specific context and international best experiences and practices.
    Keywords: E02 ; E61 ; O14 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; economic diversification ; macroeconomic stability ; Myanmar ; natural resource-based sectors ; regionally balanced development ; social inclusion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: This paper provides a synthesis of the three papers on the non-Nordic developed economies, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland along the following themes: role of the state, openness, education and human capital, and macroeconomic stability. It then draws lessons for developing countries of today.
    Keywords: O5 ; O14 ; O15 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; economic growth ; economic development ; industrialization ; Ireland ; Japan ; Switzerland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    New Brunswick, N.J. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    The Review of Black Political Economy. 18:1 (1989:Summer) 17 
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Concluding Remarks In this paper we have focused our attention on the relation between the configuration of protection-seeking and of rent-seeking interests and the choice of the protection instruments. In doing so, we have abstracted from the problem of nonequivalence of tariffs and quotas. Recent writings on product differentiation (Rodriguez, 1979, Donnenfeld, 1984) have thrown new light on this old issue; it may well be that the discussion is of key importance to the understanding of industry's predilection for quantitative restraints. We also failed to deal with the question on nonequivalence of restrictive measures under conditions of uncertainty. Finally, we touched only peripherally on the interaction among state. It is, perhaps, more realistic to regard trade-barrier formation as a game among nations as in Baldwin and Clarke (1985). Every "player" seeks at once to protect its import-substituting industries, and to promote its exports, by putting up barriers and by demanding that others lower theirs. This approach is more suited, however, to explain the severity of restraints than it is to explain the nature of restraints, which is the problem at hand. Trade restrictions have a "protective" and a "revenue" effect. In less-developed countries, with ineffectual internal revenue-collecting systems, revenue-seeking governments may ally themselves with protection-seeking, emergent industries and institute high tariffs. Tariffs and quotas may coexist if the trade-restriction-seeking alliance includes traders. Voluntary export restraints, the newest of the protective devices, may be popular because they circumvent international treaties and short-circuit cumbersome procedures associated with changes in tariffs or quotas, but they also have the virtue of inviting foreign exporters to act like price-setters. The harm to the foreign exporters is thereby mitigated — in fact, exporters may be gainers. Hence the danger of retaliatory action on the part of foreign governments is lessened. Domestic-content legislation is a unique device in that the same domestic factor benefits from protection and also collects the protection-created revenue. We show the formal identity between the "South African" situation, in which the maximum black/white-worker ratio is a binding constraint, and regulations requiring that a given percentage of the value of the product be domestically produced. We also derive formally the maximum permissible foreign-content ratio which is optimal from the point of view of the protected interests. In our analysis we have said virtually nothing about the victims of protectionism. A discussion of the impact of the various measures on those who bear the cost of protection would, doubtless, deepen our understanding of the problem. We should thus consider the magnitude of the deadweight loss and of the income transfer, and the concentration or dispersion of the losers. Last, but not least, we should consider the question of awareness. Thus the cost impact of a tariff is easier to perceive than that of a quota, with the cost of a VER or of domestic-import content rule the most difficult to calculate of all. It may be that the principle of the hiding hand is as important to the new political economy as the Benthamite principles were to the old.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: This paper studies the political and economic evolution of trade and international relations of the nations and regions of Asia between themselves and the rest of the world over the past millennium, paying particular attention to: the Pax Mongolica and overland trade during the Middle Ages; the European intrusion at the turn of the fifteenth century and the impact of the New World; the spread of European imperialism and the rise of nationalism and the achievement of independence. A final section discusses the comparative evolution of Europe and Asia and the question of why the Industrial Revolution did not first occur in Asia.
    Keywords: F54 ; F63 ; N10 ; N15 ; ddc:330 ; Malthus-Ricardo model ; dynastic cycle ; globalization ; catchup
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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