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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Mit Hilfe der Stärkegelelektrophorese wurden die phänotypischen Variationen der alkalischen Serumphosphatase bei 746 Gesunden, 62 Patienten mit Ulcus duodeni, 95 Patienten mit Ulcus ventriculi und 65 Patienten mit Magencarcinom untersucht. Die Beziehungen der quantitativen Variationen der langsamer wandernden B-Komponente zum ABO-Blutgruppensystem, zum Lewis-Blutgruppensystem, zum ABH-Ausscheidersystem und ihre Abhängigkeit von der Nahrungszufuhr werden bestätigt. Bei der Untersuchung von 637 nicht nüchternen Gesunden wurde eine positive Korrelation der B-Bande zu den Blutgruppen O, B und Le(a-/b+) und den Ausscheidern von ABH-Substanzen gefunden. Eine negative Korrelation der B-Bande fand sich zu den Blutgruppen A1, Le(a+/b-) und den Nichtausscheidern von ABH-Substanzen. Bei einem Vergleichskollektiv von 109 nüchternen Gesunden wurde im Prinzip wieder die gleiche Korrelation gefunden. Die Häufigkeit und auch die Intensität der B-Bande war jedoch insgesamt geringer als bei den nicht nüchternen Gesunden. Nach Nahrungsaufnahme kommt es zu einem Anstieg der Intensität der B-Komponente der alkalischen Phosphatase im Serum, wie in einem Diätversuch bei drei Personen gezeigt werden konnte. Bei Patienten mit Ulcus duodeni, Ulcus ventriculi und Carcinoma ventriculi war sowohl die Häufigkeit als auch die Intensität der B-Bande geringer als bei Gesunden. Diese Abweichung wird auf eine Änderung der Ernährungsweise oder eine Störung im Bereich des Gastrointestinaltraktes zurückgeführt. Für einen Zusammenhang zwischen der B-Komponente der alkalischen Serumphosphatase und der bekannten ABO-Blutgruppenassoziation der drei untersuchten gastrointestinalen Erkrankungen ergab sich kein eindeutiger Hinweis.
    Notes: Abstract The alkaline serum phosphatase has been studied by starch gel electrophoresis in 746 healthy individuals, 62 patients with duodenal ulcer, 95 patients with stomach ulcer, and 65 patients with stomach cancer (Fig. 1, Table 1). The previously reported quantitative variations of the B-component of alkaline phosphatase, which is presumably identical with the intestinal component, has been confirmed. The variations of the B-component are associated with the ABO blood group system, the Lewis blood group system, and the ABH secretor status; they are also influenced by diet. In a sample of 637 healthy, nonfasting persons the B-component was positively correlated to the O, B and Le(a-/b+) blood groups and to ABH secretion. The B-component was negatively associated with the A1 and Le(a+/b-) blood groups and the ABH non-secretor status (Table 2 and 3). In a sample of 109 fasting healthy individuals the B-component was less frequent and also less intense if present. Nevertheless, the same correlations to the ABO and Lewis blood groups and the ABH secretor status are found as in the non-fasting control (Table 5 and 6). In three persons the increase of the B-component of alkaline phosphatase in serum was followed after intake of a fatty meal (Table 7, Fig. 2 and 3). In patients with duodenal ulcer, stomach ulcer and stomach cancer the B-component is less frequent and less intense than in the control group of fasting healthy individuals. This deviation is related to differences in the diet or to disturbances of the gastrointestinal functions in these patients. There was no clear indication of a connection between the B-component of alkaline phosphatase and the ABO blood groups association with these gastrointestinal diseases (Table 8, 9, and 10).
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 11 (1978), S. 669-669 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Some multiplicities for the Laue class \bar 31m are not correct in several standard texts.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 42 (1986), S. 98-101 
    ISSN: 1600-5724
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Two sufficient criteria on homometric polytypes are derived. They are applied to CdI2. In addition to the known pairs of homometric structures, infinite sets of other pairs may be constructed. Examples of possible pairs of homometric CdI2 polytypes for all space groups in CdI2 are given.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematical notes 64 (1998), S. 518-523 
    ISSN: 1573-8876
    Keywords: Quantum splitting ; equilibrium state ; independent states ; dissipation of energy ; thinning ; quantum boson system ; Fock space
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss a nonindependent (beam) splitting for which the related thinning leaves the class of equilibrium states for a one mode electromagnetic field invariant. The thinning affects only the parameters of the state, showing a nonlinear loss of energy. After the splitting, the energy values of both split parts are independent. This independence is a characteristic property of the geometric distribution, the distribution of energy values in the equilibrium state. Also, we observe that the class of states where the full states of the split parts are independent is formed by the so-called phase states.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 40 (1984), S. 434-436 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2064
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Summary Motions of one-dimensional infinite particle systems are considered where the dynamics is given by systems of ordinary differential equations of first order. The aim of the paper is to show that under certain assumptions about the system of differential equations the distribution law P tof the particle system at time t becomes more and more regular under the influence of such an interaction. Moreover, P tis tending weakly toward a distribution describing a random particle system with equal successive spacings.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Light climate ; Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (tobacco, antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants transformed with ‘antisense’ rbcS to decrease the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) have been used to investigate the contribution of Rubisco to the control of photosynthesis in plants growing at different irradiances. Tobacco plants were grown in controlled-climate chambers under ambient CO2 at 20°C at 100, 300 and 750 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance, and at 28°C at 100, 300 and 1000 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance. (i) Measurement of photosynthesis under ambient conditions showed that the flux control coefficient of Rubisco (C infRubisco supA ) was very low (0.01–0.03) at low growth irradiance, and still fairly low (0.24–0.27) at higher irradiance. (ii) Short-term changes in the irradiance used to measure photosynthesis showed that C infRubisco supA increases as incident irradiance rises, (iii) When low-light (100 μmol·m−2·s−1)-grown plants are exposed to high (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) irradiance, Rubisco is almost totally limiting for photosynthesis in wild types. However, when high-light-grown leaves (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) are suddenly exposed to high and saturating irradiance (1500–2000 μmol·m−2·s−1), C infRubisco supA remained relatively low (0.23–0.33), showing that in saturating light Rubisco only exerts partial control over the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis in “sun” leaves; apparently additional factors are co-limiting photosynthetic performance, (iv) Growth of plants at high irradiance led to a small decrease in the percentage of total protein found in the insoluble (thylakoid fraction), and a decrease of chlorophyll, relative to protein or structural leaf dry weight. As a consequence of this change, high-irradiance-grown leaves illuminated at growth irradiance avoided an inbalance between the “light” reactions and Rubisco; this was shown by the low value of C infRubisco supA (see above) and by measurements showing that non-photochemical quenching was low, photochemical quenching high, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was low at the growth irradiance. In contrast, when a leaf adapted to low irradiance was illuminated at a higher irradiance, Rubisco exerted more control, non-photochemical quenching was higher, photochemical quenching was lower, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was higher than in a leaf which had grown at that irradiance. We conclude that changes in leaf composition allow the leaf to avoid a one-sided limitation by Rubisco and, hence, overexcitation and overreduction of the thylakoids in high-irradiance growth conditions, (v) ‘Antisense’ plants with less Rubisco contained a higher content of insoluble (thylakoid) protein and chlorophyll, compared to total protein or structural leaf dry weight. They also showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than the wild type, when measured at an irradiance below that at which the plant had grown. We propose that N-allocation in low light is not optimal in tobacco and that genetic manipulation to decrease Rubisco may, in some circumstances, increase photosynthetic performance in low light.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Biomass allocation ; Nicotiana ; Nitrogen nutrition ; Photosynthesis ; Relative growth rate ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) ; Transgenic plant (tobacco antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants and transgenic tobacco transformed with antisense rbcS to decrease expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were grown at 300 mol-m−2 · s−1 irradiance and 20° C at either 0.1, 0.7 or 5 mM NH4NO3. In high nitrogen (N), growth was reduced in parallel with the inhibition of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation. In limiting N, photosynthesis was reduced strongly when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation, but growth was hardly affected. At all N levels, decreased expression of Rubisco led to a decrease in the amount of starch accumulated in the leaves. There was a large increase of the specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area maintained per unit dry weight in the leaf) in plants with decreased Rubisco. Increased SLA was associated with an increased inorganic and a decreased carbon contribution to leaf structural dry weight. The increased SLA represents a more efficient investment of photosynthate with respect to maximisation of leaf area and light interception, and partly compensates for the decreased rate of photosynthesis in plants with decreased expression of Rubisco. The changes of starch content and SLA were particularly large in limiting N, when growth rate was effectively independent of the rate of photosynthesis. Increased N availability led to a large increase of the shoot/ root ratio, but only a small increase in SLA. It is argued that N availability and the availability of photosynthate both regulate storage and allocation of biomass to optimize resource utilization, but achieve this via different mechanisms.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Phosphorus(III) iodide reacts with sulfur under suitable conditions (PJ3:S8 = 1:1/8; CS2 as solvent; daylight excluded) forming the hitherto unknown crystalline thiophosphoryl iodide, PSJ3. A simpler synthesis is that starting from the three elements dissolved in CS2 and reacting over several days at 0°C and light exclusion.The new compound decomposes at 20°C into P4S7, PJ3 and J2, light and heat accelerating this decomposition. From IR and Raman investigations, the symmetry of the PSJ3 molecule is supposed to be C3v.
    Notes: Phosphor(III)-jodid reagiert mit Schwefel im Molverhältnis 1 PJ3: 1/8 S8 in Schwefelkohlenstoff unter Lichtausschluß zu dem bisher unbekannten, kristallinen Phosphor-sulfidjodid PSJ3. Noch einfacher gelingt die Synthese des PSJ3 aus den Elementen im entsprechenden stöchiometrischen Verhältnis in Schwefelkohlenstoff durch mehrtägiges Stehen unter Lichtausschluß bei 0°C. Die reine Verbindung zersetzt sich bei 20°C innerhalb weniger Stunden unter Oxydo-Reduktion zu Tetraphosphor-heptasulfid, Phosphor(III)-jodid und Jod, wobei Licht und Wärme die Umwandlung begünstigen. Die molekülspektroskopischen Befunde stehen mit der angenommenen Symmetrie C3v der PSJ3-Molekel im Einklang.
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