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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Keywords: Key words Coral ; Sea anemone ; Dinoflagellates ; Symbiosis ; Eutrophication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Symbiotic dinoflagellates are abundant in the endoderm cells of tropical marine anthozoans, but the cell-specific density (CSD) of symbionts has not yet been investigated. In this study we used mechanical and enzymatic methods of maceration, and staining with substrate-specific fluorochromes, to observe a large number of individual host cells from 33 species of tropical anthozoans collected in Florida, Hawaii and Jamaica or cultured in Monaco. In the majority of species, most of the host cells contained a single algal cell (singlet). Host cells with two or more (up to six) algae were much less abundant. The average CSD for the 33 species was 1.54±0.30 (range 1.11 to 2.19). Singlets arranged in a monolayer can account for the areal density of algae observed in many anthozoans. The dinoflagellates occupy most of the interior of macerated host cells, leaving the host cytoplasm and cell membrane as a thin outer layer, often unresolvable by light microscopy. This spatial arrangement may favor diffusion and transport of CO2, bicarbonate ions, and nutrients from the environment to the algae. The effect of nutrient enrichment on CSD was determined by exposing eleven species to chronically elevated levels of ammonium-N. After four weeks all species exhibited a dramatic increase in algal mitotic index and CSD. The potential consequences of environmentally induced increases in CSD in tropical anthozoans are discussed in terms of the decreased cell-specific photosynthesis (CO2 limitation) and decreased rates of calcification observed in other studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Keywords: Keywords Coral ; Nitrogen ; Phosphorus ; Eutrophication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of prolonged (9 week) nutrient enrichment on the growth and photosynthetic rates of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata was investigated. The main questions were: (1) what is the exposure time needed to induce measurable change in growth rate? (2) which are the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus required to cause changes in these rates? (3) what is the recovery potential of the corals after the nutrient stress? For this purpose, three tanks (N, P, NP) were enriched with ammonium (N), phosphorus (P) or both nutrients (NP), respectively. A fourth tank (C) served as a control. The growth of 40 nubbins (10 in each tank) was monitored during four periods: period 1 (nutrient-poor conditions), period 2 (10 μm NH4 and/or 2 μm PO4 enrichment), period 3 (20 μm NH4 and/or 2 μm PO4) and period 4 (nutrient-poor conditions). Period 4 was performed to study the recovery potential of corals after a nutrient stress. During period 1, growth rates remained constant in all tanks. In the P tank, growth rates declined during the two enrichment periods, with a total decrease of 60% by the end of period 3. In the N tank, growth rates remained nearly constant during period 2 but decreased in period 3 (60% decrease). In the NP tank, 50% and 25% decreases were observed during periods 2 and 3. At the end of the recovery period, a regain in growth rate was observed in the N and NP tanks (35 and 30% increase, respectively, compared with the rates measured at the end of period 3) and growth rates returned to 60% of the initial rates. By contrast, in the P tank, there was no regain in growth and a further decrease of 5% was observed. Rates of photosynthesis were often higher during the enriched than the nutrient-poor period (up to 150% increase). Corals with the highest percent increases in maximal gross photosynthetic rate (P g max ) had the smallest decreases in growth rate due to nutrient enrichment. In conclusion, high ammonium (20 μm) and relatively low phosphorus concentrations (2 μm) are required to induce a significant decrease in coral growth rate. The largest reduction was observed with both ammonium and phosphorus enrichment. The decrease in growth rate was rapid following nutrient enrichment, since a 10% decrease or more could be observed after the first week of treatment.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, autotrophic flagellates, and microphytoplankton) and planktonic microorganisms (bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates, and ciliates) were measured in the water over a fringing coral reef at Miyako Island (Japan). Their in situ growth and production rates, as well as their grazing rates, were estimated using diffusion chambers. Bacteria dominated the heterotrophic biomass (37–73% of total C), whereas nanoflagellates dominated the autotrophic biomass (65–75% of total autotropic C). Growth and production rates showed that these microbial populations over the reef were in a very dynamic state: growth rates ranged between 2 and 4 doublings day−1 for the bacteria, and between 1.5 and 3 doublings day−1 for the auto- and heterotrophic pico- and nanoplankton. This led to high production rates (10–25 μg C liter−1 day−1 for bacteria and flagellates). The microbial biomass was removed rapidly, since 60–70% of the bacterial production and 30–50% of the autotrophic production were grazed by the heterotrophic flagellates and ciliates, which themselves were grazed (50–70% of the production) by the higher trophic levels. These results suggest that dissolved organic matter was continuously channeled through the microbial loop to the higher trophic levels and the microbes had an important trophic role in terms of nutrient for the benthic organisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: In the Mediterranean deep-sea, scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC) are observed to survive at the uppermost end of their presumed thermal distribution range (4–13 °C). Here, we show that 2 common CWC species (i.e. Dendrophyllia cornigera and Desmophyllum dianthus) maintained in aquaria can indeed tolerate considerably elevated seawater temperatures (17.5 ± 0.1 °C), while growing at similar (D. dianthus) or significantly higher (D. cornigera) rates than conspecifics cultured in parallel for 87 days at ambient Mediterranean deep-sea temperature (12.5 ± 0.1 °C). Neither differences in coral appearance nor mortality were evident for both species at either temperature. D. dianthus grew significantly faster (0.23 ± 0.08 % day−1) than D. cornigera (0.05 ± 0.01 % day−1) under ambient thermal conditions. Growth of D. cornigera increased significantly (0.14 ± 0.07 % day−1) at elevated temperature, while Desmophyllum dianthus growth showed no significant difference under both conditions. These findings suggest that D. dianthus and D. cornigera may be capable of surviving in warmer environments than previously reported, and thus challenge temperature as the paramount limiting environmental factor for the occurrence of some CWC species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Growth rates of the cold-water corals (CWC) Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Desmophyllum dianthus and Dendrophyllia cornigera were measured over 8 mo under controlled conditions (12°C in the dark, fed 5 times a week) by means of the buoyant weight technique. Additionally, linear growth rates were measured in M. oculata and L. pertusa for 2 and 1 yr, respectively. The weight measurements revealed growth rates, expressed as percent growth per day (mean ± SD), of 0.11 ± 0.04 for M. oculata, 0.02 ± 0.01 for L. pertusa, 0.06 ± 0.03 for D. dianthus and 0.04 ± 0.02 % d–1 for D. cornigera. Growth in M. oculata was significantly higher (p 〈 0.0001) than in the other 3 CWC species. For M. oculata and L. pertusa, also linear growth was recorded. These values (mean ± SD) were 0.014 ± 0.007 and 0.024 ± 0.018 mm d–1 for M. oculata and L. pertusa, respectively. This is the first study that compares the growth rates of 4 different CWC species under the same experimental conditions of water flow, temperature, salinity and food supply. These corals have different growth rates, both in terms of total weight increase and linear increase, and these growth rates can be related to interspecific physiological differences. Data on growth rates are essential to understand the population dynamics of CWC as well as the recovery capacity of these communities after disturbance.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 398 . pp. 149-155.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: ABSTRACT: Little is known about the basic biology of deep-water coral species. In this study, we experimentally assessed the rates of ingestion of Artemia salina adults and nauplii by the 4 Mediterranean cold water coral species Dendrophyllia cornigera, Desmophyllum cristagalli, Madrepora oculata, and Lophelia pertusa. All species ingested A. salina in adult and nauplii forms. L. pertusa showed the highest grazing rate for both prey types, whereas M. oculata showed the lowest capture rates among the 4 species, and was practically unable to ingest adult prey. Capture rates of the 4 coral species ranged between 5 and 8 adult A. salina, and 50 and 280 nauplii polyp–1 h–1. Surprisingly, both capture rates and carbon uptake (adult Artemia ingestion: 994 to 3542 µg C polyp–1 h–1; nauplii ingestion: 78.1 to 462 µg C polyp–1 h–1) were within the range of values found in some tropical corals (which often ingest 0.004 to 3600 prey items polyp–1 h–1). The results show that the capture rates and energy input of the studied cold water coral species appear to be on a level that is comparable to that of other corals, even tropical zooxanthellate species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-01-03
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-06-18
    Description: This study has examined the effect of low seawater pH values (induced by an increased CO2 partial pressure) on the rates of photosynthesis, as well as on the carbon budget and carbon translocation in the scleractinian coral species Stylophora pistillata, using a new model based on 13C labelling of the photosynthetic products. Symbiont photosynthesis contributes to a large part of the carbon acquisition in tropical coral species, and it is thus important to know how environmental changes affect this carbon acquisition and allocation. For this purpose, nubbins of S. pistillata were maintained for six months at two pHTs (8.1 and 7.2, by bubbling seawater with CO2). The lowest pH value was used to tackle how seawater pH impacts the carbon budget of a scleractinian coral. Rates of photosynthesis and respiration of the symbiotic association and of isolated symbionts were assessed at each pH. The fate of 13C photosynthates was then followed in the symbionts and the coral host for 48 h. Nubbins maintained at pHT 7.2 presented a lower areal symbiont concentration, and lower areal rates of gross photosynthesis and carbon incorporation compared to nubbins maintained at pHT 8.1. The total carbon acquisition was thus lower under low pH. However, the total percentage of carbon translocated to the host as well as the amount of carbon translocated per symbiont cell were significantly higher under pHT 7.2 than under pHT 8.1 (70% at pHT 7.2 vs. 60% at pHT 8.1), such that the total amount of photosynthetic carbon received by the coral host was equivalent under both pHs (5.5 to 6.1 μg C cm−2 h−1). Although the carbon budget of the host was unchanged, symbionts acquired less carbon for their own needs (0.6 compared to 1.8 μg C cm−2 h−1), explaining the overall decrease in symbiont concentration at low pH. In the long term, such decrease in symbiont concentration might severely affect the carbon budget of the symbiotic association.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
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