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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (LECR3—Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source No. 3) has been constructed this year. The main purpose of this source is to provide highly charged ion beams for atomic physics and surface physics research. The design of this ion source is based on the IMP 14.5 GHz ECR ion source (LECR2—Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source No. 2) with double rf heating by inserting waveguide directly and aluminum chamber. Furthermore, the volume of the plasma chamber is larger than that of LECR2 so as to increase the rf power and improve beam intensity for highly charged ions. But the hexapole field on the chamber wall is kept the same value in order to compare with the performance of LECR2. After only four days conditioning the first test results were obtained. The final result of this ion source is expected to be better than LECR2's. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A large diameter intense beam current broad beam ion source used for surface modifications is described. It consists of a discharge chamber and a three-grid extraction system. The discharge chamber has two anodes (front and rear) and a specially designed cusped magnetic field is used for forming a large field free region in the chamber so that a very uniform and intense ion beam has been extracted from this source. Beam currents of more than 900 mA for hydrogen and 750 mA for argon at 2.5 kV extraction voltage have been obtained. The highest beam current density is over 2.5 mA/cm2, measured at a location 25 cm downstream of the source. The density uniformity changes from +5% to +15% over a 15-cm-diam circle. The feature and the performance of this source will be described in this paper. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: High-energy and intense beam current broad beam ion sources have been developed for ion implantation and dynamic recoil mixing at CSSAR. The sources can be operated over beam energy and current ranges of 3–120 keV and 5–70 mA, respectively. For sputter coating of thin films, a series of focusing beam ion sources with different structures has also been developed. The energy and current range from 1–10 keV and 100–350 mA for different applications. For some applications, low-energy (below 100 eV) ion beams are required. CSSAR has developed a 6-cm-diam broad beam ion source. The source can be operated at beam energy 10–70 eV, and the beam current 15–80 mA has been extracted. Typical structures and operational data are given for the sources mentioned above. Recently a new type of broad beam metal ion source (Electron Beam Evaporation Metal Ion Source EBE) is being studied. Ion beams of several kinds of materials such as C, W, Ta, Mo, Cr, Ti, B, Cu, etc. have been extracted from the source. Typical operation conditions and ion yields are given in this paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 29 (1996), S. 419-426 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Electron diffraction patterns of a sputter-deposited poly crystalline MgO thin film on an SiO2 substrate, of a Ta thin film and of CoCrTa/Cr bilayer films on glass substrates are presented and analyzed based on the theory developed in Paper I [Tang & Laughlin (1996). J. Appl. Cryst. 29, 411–418]. It is found that the MgO film is [001] textured with a distribution angle of 13°. The Ta film is composed both of randomly oriented grains and [011] textured grains. The [011] texture axis distribution angle of the Ta film is determined to be 11° (11{\bar 2}O)CoCrTa/(001)Cr and (10{\bar 1}1)CoCrTa/(011)Cr polycrystalline epitaxy are identified in the CoCrTa/Cr bilayer films. Both the bilayer films have a texture axis distribution angle of 6°.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 7311-7316 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Although it is well known that Cr underlayers sputter deposited on glass or NiP/Al substrates have either the (002) or (110) textures, the mechanism of the formation of the crystallographic textures is not clear. A model is proposed for the formation of the crystallographic texture of sputter-deposited Cr thin films. A systematic set of experiments has been carried out to test the model. It was found that the (110) texture, which is usually found in Cr thin films deposited on substrates without preheating, can form at elevated temperatures (250 °C) when deposited at low Ar pressure or by applying substrate bias. The initial stage of the texture formation was also investigated by using very thin Cr films. It was found that the (002) texture can be initiated directly on the substrate surface, while the (110) texture appears not to form directly on substrate surface, but rather as a result of film growth. The proposed model is consistent with the experimental results. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 69 (1998), S. 2644-2646 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An investigation to reduce the energy of the solid ion beam extracted from electron beam evaporation ion source for material modifications has been performed. The preliminary results have shown that the beam energy can be reduced to lower than 100 eV by a specially designed extraction system for carbon and nitrogen mixed ion beams. The beam current extracted is up to 30 mA for a small 20 mm extraction diameter ion source. It has been found that the extraction energy can be controlled by adjusting the bias voltage of the sample used for coating and the crucible potential. The extraction capability and the composition of the ion beam can also be controlled by changing the gas flow rate and the input power of the ion source. For carbon nitride films synthesized at low energy by this system, the results have shown to exhibit very high hardness values. The microhardness is over HK 6000 kg/mm2. The principle of this ion source is described. The structure of the ion source, and the experimental results are also described in this article. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a new type of electron beam evaporation intense beam current broad beam metal ion source. In this ion source, a focusing electron beam is used to bombard and vaporize the metal and other solid elements within the same chamber where the metal and solid element atoms are ionized by arc discharge. It can operate with gaseous and solid elements. Both pure or mixed ions with single or multiple charge states can also be extracted from this source. The performance and the characteristics of this source have tested. Ion beams of a series of elements, which include C, W, Ta, Mo, Cr, Ti, B, Cu, Ni, AI, Ar, N, etc., have been extracted, and the highest beam current is up to 90 mA. By using this ion beam bombardment, a good mixture between substrate and film was observed. Deposition rates as high as 25 A(ring)/s for Mo, 30 A(ring)/s for Ti, and 80 A(ring)/s for C have been obtained. The structure of the ion source and the experimental results will be presented in this paper. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polarization dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (PD-EXAFS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements of CoCrTa and CoCrPt films, sputter deposited at varying substrate temperatures, were performed to investigate the average local structure and chemistry about the Ta, Pt, and Co atoms and the average magnetic moment of the Co and Cr atoms within these films. Results from the MCD measurements indicate the average net magnetic moment of the Cr atoms is opposite in direction and five percent in amplitude relative to the Co moments. Inspection of the Fourier transforms of the XAFS data from these samples shows an increase in structural disorder around the Ta and Pt atoms with increasing substrate deposition temperature. A further comparison between the Ta and Pt edge EXAFS results show that the temperature-dependent increase in structural disorder is greater around the Ta atoms in the CoCrTa system than it is around the Pt atoms in the CoCrPt system. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An experimental investigation is described of a comparison between the ion beam neutralization characteristics of a local neutralizer (within approximately 5 cm of the beam edge) and those associated with a distant one (approximately 1 meter away from the thruster). The influence of magnetic fields in the vicinity of the neutralizer cathode orifice which are either parallel or normal to the neutralizer axis is assessed. The plasma property profiles which reflect the influence of the magnetic fields are measured. The results suggest that magnetic fields at the region of a neutralizer cathode orifice influence its ability to couple to the ion beam. They reveal that there is a potential jump from the neutralizer cathode orifice to the plasma which exists close to the orifice. This potential drop is found to increase as the axial component of magnetic flux density increases. A magnetic field perpendicular to the neutralizer axis induces a potential rise a few centimeters downstream from the neutralizer cathode.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 82-1945 , Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and DGLR, International Electric Propulsion Conference; Nov. 17-19, 1982; New Orleans, LA
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: To quantify the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks individually, size-resolved PM samples were collected before, during and after a Chinese folk festival (Chinese New Year) in a megacity in China. Through chemical analysis and morphological characterisation, a strong influence of fireworks on the physicochemical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was observed. The concentrations of many species exhibited an increasing trend during the heavy-firework period, especially for K+, Mg2+ and Cr; the results of the non-sea-salt ions demonstrated an anthropogenic influence on K+ and Mg2+. Then, source apportionment was conducted by receptor models and peak analysis (PA). The total influence of the fireworks was quantified by positive matrix factorisation (PMF), showing that the fireworks contributed higher fractions (23.40% for PM10 and 29.66% for PM2.5) during the heavy-firework period than during the light-firework period (4.28% for PM10 and 7.18% for PM2.5). The profiles of the total fireworks obtained by two independent methods (PMF and peak analysis) were consistent, with higher abundances of K+, Al, Si, Ca and organic carbon (OC). Finally, the individual contributions of the direct and indirect impacts of fireworks were quantified by chemical mass balance (CMB). The percentage contributions of resuspended dust, biomass combustion and direct fireworks were 36.8 ± 8.37%, 14.1 ± 2.82% and 44.4 ± 8.26%, respectively, for PM10 and 34.9 ± 4.19%, 16.6 ± 3.05% and 52.5 ± 9.69%, respectively, for PM2.5, in terms of the total fireworks. The quantification of the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks in the ambient PM gives a original contribution for understanding the physicochemical characteristics and mechanisms of such high-intensity anthropogenic activities.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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